Current appearance of Empire White castle in Hradec nad Moravici is the result of almost thousand year development and changes, which the area of the castle went through in the period from the 10th to 19th century. The original Slavic fortress was in 13th century rebuilt into Gothic castle, which was one the main centres of Premyslids’ administration. The importance of the castle declined after Land authorities moved to Opava in 1433. After Renaissance redesign in the 16th century and after some noble families had changed here from the 16th until 18th century, the castle together with the manor was bought by the Lichnovskys in 1778. They were its last owners and held the castle for almost two centuries until 1945. The earls of Lichnovsky became also investors of the last Empire redesign after a vast fire, which affected the castle in 1796. The cause of the fire was unknown. Jan Mihatsch of Krnov was the author of the Empire rebuilt between 1796 and 1804. After the redesign the castle was visited by many important persons such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Nicolo Paganini, Ferenc Liszt, Russian Tsar Alexander I, Austrian Chancellor Klemens Lothar Metternich or German Emperor Vilem II. The castle is currently owned by the state and is administrated by National Heritage Institute based in Ostrava. The visitors can choose out of two guided tours.
The buildings of the Red castle in Hradec nad Moravici were designed and built for Karl Maria Lichnovsky between 1872 and 1895. In romantic Pseudogothic buildings designed in the manner of North-German Gothic castles there was a stable for thoroughbred horses, a depot for buggies and carriages, a guardhouse, a blacksmith’s workshop, a flat for an equerry, a donkey barn, and much space was used as a warehouse. During World War I an Austrian horse hospital was situated here. In 1939 Vilem Lichnovsky, who was the owner of the manor then, wanted to have the whole complex pulled down for the reason of the cost inefficiency. The heritage institutions did not agree and what more, World War II had begun. Therefore, the buildings were not destroyed.
Despite numerous fires, which hit the Red castle during the 20th century, it has become the social centre of the town. Balls and celebratory events of the town as well as the International Music Competition called ‘Beethovenuv Hradec’ are organized here. In the castle there is an architectonically unique restaurant, hotel, and visitors can go through the entrance gate with a capstan and go up the view tower called ‘Hodinova vez’ (Clock Tower). In the following years the Red castle is to be redesigned to its original appearance, which was damaged by insensitive extensions of the 1970’s.
The White (waterworks) Tower in Hradec nad Moravici is a torso of the plan to built a new entrance to the residence from the southern park side. Duke Karl Maria Lichnovsky’s intention was to create a sumptuous representative two towers with an entrance gate and palm greenhouses connected with the southern wing of the White Castle. A spectacular as well as very expensive project was realized only partially. The only raised tower built in 1887 was later used as water tank and a warehouse for garden solitaires. In 1901 in the unfinished 4th floor a water tank of about 25 m3 was riveted and connected with a newly constructed water pipeline with the length of 3.1 km, which brought water from four spring shafts from Kajlovec. The water pipeline system supplied the White Castle as well as large stables, the buildings on the square, forest duke office, police station and the fountain on the square. The water from the tank was occasionally used in summer months for watering the plants and roads in the castle park.
The view platform ‘Bezruc’ has the appearance of a wooden view gazebo, which stands on four stone circular pillars and you can find it on the one of the topmost places in the castle natural landscape park in 435 m.a.s.l. The exact date of its establishment is not known. It is certain, though, that it was here in 1871 at latest and was originally called ‘Kaiser Wilhölms Höhe’ as a memorial to the coronation of the first German Emperor William I. The then owner of the castle, Karl Maria Lichnovsky, belonged to the Emperor’s greatest admirers and at the same time he belonged to the ones who were in favour of the united Germany. The interesting fact is that in 1913 the view platform was visited by German Emperor William II accompanied with Duke Lichnovsky. In 1947 - for ideological reasons - the view platform changed its name to Petr Bezruc. The name has been used ever since.
The Radun castle has stood in the place of an original fortress probably since 1320. There is not any information about the first owners. In 1475 the fortress was acquired by the Tvorkovskys of Kravare and in the period of Jiri Tvorkovsky of Kravare it was rebuilt into a Renaissance castle in the second half of the 16th century. The restoration continued also in the period of the best-known member of this noble family Lord Pertold Tvorkovsky, a cruel man, who held Radun for 40 years until 1639. Then many owners varied here. In 1780 the castle was bought by Earls Monnichs. In the period of Jan Larisch-Monnich between 1816 and 1822 the castle was last majorly restored. According to the project of the Opavian costructor Karel J. Englis, the castle was converted into a three-wing Empire building. The Empire modifications were made also in the granary, orangery and administrative building. There was also a new initiative to establish an English park with ponds and the construction of a sheepcote in 1841. The construction was realized in the period of Gebhard Blucher, who got married to Radun in 1832. In the period of the Bluchers there were last construction modifications made, when a romantic Gothic Revival tower was added and the interiors were modified. In 1947 the castle was seized by the government and most of the inventory was stolen. Then an agricultural school was established here. Between 1962 and 1979 there used to be a kindergarten and primary school, a gym and a cinema. In 1979 in connection with the complete restoration of the White Castle in near Hradec nad Moravici, a cultural restoration of the interiors as well as exteriors of the Radun castle started too. Currently the castle is full installed building with two guided tours, which serve to please the visitors.
July – August daily except Mondays 10 am – 5 pm
September – all weekdays except Mondays 10 am – 4 pm; Saturdays, Sundays, public holidays– 10 am – 5 pm
October – Saturdays, Sundays – 10 am – 4 pm
December Christmas in the castle
The Classicist orangery has been an interesting part of the castle area in Radun since 1824. In the times of its establishment a flower and decorative rose gardens called ‘rozarium’ in Czech fit closely to the orangery. These flower gardens were changed into a vegetable garden in the 1850’s. For financial reasons the operation of the orangery was reduced in the 1920’s and its premises stopped being used and heated. Thus the building fell into disrepair. The devastation peaked in the 1950’s when the roof fell down. Until 1978 the building and the garden were used to teach children to work in the garden. The overall restoration of the orangery started in the 1990’s and finished in 2004. In the orangery a range of hundreds of exotic as well as local plants and citrus trees are displayed. The building and the flower garden serve the public nowadays. Various concerts, exhibitions as well as wedding ceremonies are held here.
The big baroque granary was built in the area of the castle in the second half of the 18th century, when Radun belonged to Earls Monnichs. At the beginning of the 19th century the castle and the administrative building were rebuilt in Empire style. The four-floor granary used to be decorated with pictures of St. Florian, a protector of buildings against the fire, and St. Margaret, a saint patron of good harvest, in the niches on the gable side. The granary was in operation until 1947. The traditional castle harvest feast was very popular over the whole manor. The tradition was that Countess Luisa always accepted a harvest wreth from the employees of the Radun-Bravantice homestead. Currently, the building of the granary is under expensive restoration. After the restoration the granary should serve as fully functional background for the Radun castle. There is supposed to be a ticket office, toilets, refreshments for the castle visitors, exhibition space, etc.
Vošárna – Waschhaus or castle washhouse in the settlement under the Radun castle was intended for washing and drying bed and table linen since 1826. The washhouse with its distinctive high mansard roof is located near the Radunka River at the edge of the castle area. The linen of the castle nobility was washed there until the World War II; then the building served as a private dwelling. Since 1986 the building had belonged to several owners and gradually decayed. Due to its critical condition it was listed in the Czech Republic registry of the most endangered historic landmarks. With the aim to save the washhouse an unincorporated association Vosarna was founded which managed, in cooperation with other entities and enthusiasts, to transform the ruinous building into a new social cultural centre of Radun.
Castle Kravaře is situated in c....
Originally a late Gothic château from the beginning of the 16th century, nowadays it is a three-winged one-storey building. In its rooms there is situated the Museum of Hlučínsko, which is intend on the town
Hlučín and the region Hlučín in its historical territory. Then you can fi nd here the management of the Culture Centre in Hlučín, the town library
and rooms of the Primary art school Pavel Josef Vejvanovský.
The house number 230 is the oldest building in Budisov nad Budisovkou. It is a former mill, which lies on the brook Budisovka. When you enter, you can visit a unique exposition of Slate Museum, which shows tourists the town history, interesting people and especially the history of clay slate mining in the district of Nizky Jesenik. There is an essential orientation in geology and paleontology as well as a collection of tools used for mining and machining of slate. Slate was used mainly in construction industry as well as in electric power industry or it was used for the production of little boards and writing tools for school children. Slate has still been used for the production of decorative objects. Educational Slate Path begins near the museum.
The museum is open in May, June and September every Saturday from 9 to 12 a.m.; in July and August from Tuesday to Friday 9 – 12 a.m. and 2 – 4 p.m., on Saturday from 9 to 12 a.m. Out of these days and hours you can order a visit on MKIS personally or on telephone number 556312040. Children under 5 have free admission, children under 15 and pensioners pay 10 Czech crowns and adults 20 Czech crowns.
This outdoor museum was created in 2002. Visitors can see living parts of houses (a chamber, a kitchen, a maid’s room), a washhouse, a stable for horses, a cow-shed, a granary etc. here. In the next two rooms – a shed and a barn – the visitors can get acquainted with craft instruments, farming machines and tools, which were used in the former household and on a farm.
You will find the Silesian countryside museum in the place which is closely connected to the history of Holasovice village. Previously it used to be a fortified settlement of Holasicove tribe. At present you can find there a baroque granary and a former manor with a farm and sheep barn. The museum documenting lives of Silesian people between wars had been formed since 2007 and finally opened in 2011. After a couple of years, members of the Silesian countryside civil association managed to gather thousands of artefacts mainly from the first half of the 20th century but also some unique objects from the 19th century. The exhibition features agricultural tools and machinery, a furnished kitchen, a smithy, locksmith’s, wheelwright’s and basketmaker’s workshops. Period uniforms, Silesian folk costumes and old ‘konzum’ (a cooperative shop) items can be also seen there. You will learn how old beekeepers, gardeners, bricklayers and people of other professions worked. In the attic of the museum, you will familiarise yourselves with the elementary school, the First Republic library, shoemaker’s and tailor’s workshops, the history of the local Sokol movement and volunteer firefighters association. History of Holasovice village and a fortified settlement exhibition is also being built.
Opening hours: March – June, weekends from 10 am to 3 pm, July – August, weekends from 9 am to 4 pm, basic entrance fee 30 CZK, children and OAPs 10 CZK
The foundations of the arboretum were laid between 1906 and 1928 by Quido Riedel, who started to build an English park around the Renaissance Revival castle. In 1958 the arboretum as a part of Silesian Museum was established on the basis of the existing dendrologic collection. Currently, there are about 7,000 species growing, mainly trees and shrubs. Gradually, new expositions focused on geographical units were established. The most interesting is the collection called Woody plants of five continents and a big collection of Rhododendrons, which belongs to the richest collections in the Czech Republic. The greenhouse exposition of tropical and subtropical plants is also very popular. Open: October - March, daily from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.; April – September, daily from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Admission fee: CZK 40.00, family ticket CZK 90.00
The World War II Memorial in Hrabyne was opened in 1980 as the Memorial to the Ostrava Offensive Operation. The complex includes an administrative building, the memorial itself, a symbolic cemetery and a line-up area. This originally pious site has been a part of the Silesian Museum since 1992. In 2000 the Government made it the central World War II memorial in the Czech Republic. After its reconstruction the memorial was reopened with new expositions in 2009. The central exhibition is called A Time of Deconstruction and Hope and chronologically commemorates the most important military and political events of the Second World War, including stories of civilian lives of the inhabitants. The exhibition is complemented by multimedia elements through which the visitors get a perspective on the period photographs and documents, film documentaries or diorama with military technology and a house destroyed by war fights. A smaller exhibition building serves as a venue for holding season exhibitions.
When the region of Opava was divided in 1377, the village of Lipina passed to Dukes Premek and Vaclav. In 1431 Lipina was held by Mikulas Chlebicovsky, then the owners varied and since 1574 it was rented by the manor of Hradec nad Moravici. In the unfavorable historical periods the village fell into disrepair. In 1783 the owner of Hradec – Jan Karel Lichonovsky – settled a new village in the place of so called Lipina homestead and moved the Germans from the manor of Odry here. Lipina is a completely survived village with a regular ground plan of streets and an important set of folk architecture of East-Sudetic type. There are still 25 original dwellings, 12 of which were established national culture heritage. For its urban values Lipina was established a protected historical village in 1995. In the village we can also find a chapel of the Most Holy Trinity of 1867, near which there is a cross of 1889.
The castle of Kravaře is situated in a picturesque English park with ponds and area of 22 ha. Its part is a 9-hole golf course.
Today´s high Baroque castle, whose history dates back to 14th century, was built up by Jan Rudolf Eichendorff, in the period 1721 – 1728. The owners often changed, in 1920 the castle was bought by the Czechoslovak government and there was further built up a school of economic and domestic science with a hostel. After the fire in 1937 the castle remained unrepaired for long and progressively dilapidated. In 1970 there was, after vast reconstruction, opened a military exhibition of the Ostrava operation. This was closed in 1989 and next year the castle was bought by the town Kravaře that built up a cultural and social centre here. The castle museum was founded in 1996 and after one year there was festively opened the Castle exhibition. It consists of two parts. The ethnographic exhibition presents some interesting events from the history of the village promoted in 1960 to town. At the same time it shows how the inhabitants of Kravaře lived and worked in the 2nd half of the 19th century. As the region was for the most part agricultural, the exhition shows a collection of agricultural tools and also an interior of the cottage of Hlučín. The castle exhibition consists above all of collections of the Opavian Silesian provincial museum and completed with collections from other Silesian museums. The original castle movable property did not survive, it was partially taken away by the former owner, partially sold out and given away after 1920 and partially it burnt down in 1937. This part of exhibition has to make onself imagine how the family of Eichendorff lived at the castle in the 18th century. There is also a maid´s room, lounge, dining-room, Habsburg-Lotharingian room, men´s bedroom and the tour includes also a late baroque castle chapel from 18th century, consecrated to archangel Michael. The tour route is in addition completed with accompanying exhibitions of various kinds.
The diagnostic path of health in Bělá On the base of the foundation contribution from the Foundation OKD amounting to 200.000,- CZK the village Bělá began with the expense amounting to 307 thous. CZK to build first stage of the project Diagnostic path of health. The project is intended to give the general public another alternative for using their free time. After two months of intensive work is the first stage of the project ready. It will after opening serve all the interested in the stay in the open air and beatiful nature. The terrain of the path is rugged and everybody can test his fitness. You can choose speed for yourself, for seniors there is a stylish rest site in the middle of the route with a wonderful view of silent landscape. After launching the second stage of the path in total length of 1280 m everybody interested can test his physical condition experiencing pleasant time in the forest environment. The diagnostic path of health begins by Priessnitz small pools, goes further along the wood Pavlačka and roughly after walking 650 m the tourist will discover the above mentioned rest point at the highest place of the path. Then it´s up to him whether to use it or come back again. After the second stage have been finished the round trip can be used in both directions.
The spring of forest water called Židlo rising onto the earth-surface from the big depth in the forest Pavlačka, has its rich history. From narrations we know how the spring helped people and animals as early as in 19th century. Water was described as a reliable helper at inflammations of eyes, skin eczema etc.
The sun park dial in the area of 16 x 47 metres are this time the largest sun dial of this type in the middle Europe. It uses one of the signs of
municipality Píšť – the lily, the bearing arms of the masters from Zvol, they were the owners of the village in the 16th century. the sun dial was
constructed in 2005 in the centre of the municipality, near the church and the municipal offi ce.
The windmill in Choltice is a listed technical monument, absolutely unique in the region. The original whole wooden building of the column type from 1833 stood in Sadek from where Frantisek Romfeld transferred it to Choltice in 1878. The mill was in operation until 1954, then it was continuously being repaired. At present a son of the last miller Radomir Romfeld looks after the mill. The mill serves as a museum and a collection of farm domestic goods, axe tools, horse gears or millstones is placed there.
The mill is accessible upon agreement with the authority of the Litultovice village on the phone number +420 553 668 255 or +420 555 559 541.
In this place there used to stand two windmills – Gross’s and Raab’s. Gross’s Mill in column style was first mentioned in writing in 1879. It milled corn until 1957; in 1960 it was struck by lightning during a summer storm and it burnt down. The residential part of the mill is still standing. Near the other solitary house there is the other windmill in column or ram style. The mill is called Raab’s Mill by its first owners. The milling equipment is missing now and former millers’ dwelling was destroyed in the 1960’s. It was built in 1810 and was still fully working in 1953. Decaying building was restored in 1974. In the 1980’s there were some initiatives to restore the mill, found a small folk museum and establish a base for children activities. Unfortunately, nowadays there are lengthy litigations between restitutioners and thus the future of this area is unclear.
The castle Vikstejn was built in the mid-13th century and it got its final appearance in the period of Jan Panknar of Kynsperk in the 16th century. Vikstejn was regarded as the most solid castle in the region of Opava. To prevent its seizure by Swedes during Thirty Years’ War, its major part was destroyed in 1648. Alalthough it was later restored, it was gradually falling into disrepair from the 18th century and in the end it turned into a ruin. As every castle, also Vikstejn has its own ghost – White Lady. It is a young wife of Burgrave Vitek. In the 13th century the woman was killed and thrown off the bulwark to the Moravice River by Knight Tunkel. The protective ghost of Vikstejn appears when the castle is in danger. It always appears at midnight wearing a white dress with conspicuous blood stains. Another legend tells about a frightening bell. One Vikstejn owner had a hermit who lived in the belfry below the castle killed, because he was late to ring the midnight. Then a frightening sound of a bell could be heard in the wood around the castle. The Vikstejn owner could not bear the horror and ran away. The new owner had a chapel built in the place of the old hermitage and the frightening ringing stopped.
The barn protected by a care of historical monuments with a brick wall from the end of 19th century.
The report about Bulac of Destne shows us the existence of the fortress or a fiefdom in 1363. The written report about the fortress is of 1408. It is also probable that in the period of Czech-Hungarian Wars in the 1470’s, when the homestead was owned by supporters of Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, the fortress was badly damaged. In the 1551 it was reported as abandoned. But in the period of Jan Stos of Kounice in the 1570’s it must have been restored. At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries the village was owned by Karel Ferdinand of Schertz, who started to rebuild the fortress into a baroque castle. The rebuilding lasted until 1730. From 1761 the castle was owned by Earls Renards, who had to add a new supporting system to the castle as the ground here was very unstable. The complex of historical buildings – the baroque castle and the park – is a valuable monument of the village of Destne. The castle is not open for the public as it is in a precarious state.
The single story Baroque castle from the 2nd half of the 17th century on the place of a former fortress.
The three-winged château in Classicism and partly
New-Baroque style is on the place of an extinct Renaissance
fortress. A pavilion called Hunting-lodge,
“Švýcárna” and a pool with a sculptural group are situated in the park. This time the château is in possession of the company Brioni and it is served to the commercial proposes (weddings, parties, lectures, courses etc.)and the park is a part of a golf course now.
The current castle stands in the place of the earlier fortress, which was first mentioned in 1446. It used to be a fortress with protective corner towers enclosed with moats and a set of ponds, which served to defend the townlet during the troubled war period and against marauding knights’ raids. In the second half of the 16th century Jan Stos of Kounic rebuilt the fortress into a renaissance castle. In the 18th century during the Tetzlerns period some baroque adjustments were made and finally, at the beginning of 19th century the empire-style adjustments followed. These were made by the last owners of the manor – the Rollsbergs. A natural landscape park with exotic trees and a skittle alley were established neat the castle at the beginning of the 19th century. Nowadays, there is a municipal office with a historical ceremonial hall, pharmacy, castle restaurant, library, local museum and garages of the fire brigade in the premises of the castle.
The baroque castle in Dolni Zivotice was built by Baron Karel Frantisek Orlik of Lazisko, who owned the village between 1721 and 1770. Around the building a French style decorative park was set up. In 1880 Larisch-Monich family acquired the castle and they built an orangery and established utility gardening and an orchard. In 1897 the castle was bought by Count Camillo Razumovsky, who contributed to further flourishing of the village and its economic development. After the World War II there used to be home for mentally disabled children and after 1950 the building of the castle was used by the army as barracks for Auxilliary Technical Battalion (the members of the ATB were people who were not suitable for common military service, mainly for political reasons, and were used to built technical background such as roads, etc.) Since 2000 the castle has been used as home for mentally disabled men and its interiors are not open for public.
The Classicism château in the centre of the town consists of two buildings: the heart of the château is from the 16th century and in the 17th century two-storeys Baroque building was annexed.
A stone portal from 1498 with the Aristocrats of Drahotuše coat of arms was preserved.
A component of those buildings is a palace chapel. You can find here the original Baroque statues of Immaculate and Jan Nepomucký and other movables mainly with sacred character. The château is surrounded with an English park with an area of 1,7 hectares. The Cyprián Lelek‘s monument is situated in this park. Cyprián Lelek was a revivalist
of Silesian people. The château was lastly reconstructed in 1924. Today it is the seat of the Municipal Office.
Jan Pavel Schertz had a small baroque castle built on the edge of the village of Mladecko in the 1680’s. It was pulled down, although, a hundred years later in the period of the Neffzerns. A new Empire castle was built in the part called Mladecky dvur by Lord Ondrej Renard at the beginning of the 19th century. Around the castle there is a landscape park. The castle used to serve as a home for nuns of the Congregation of Sisters in Mercy of the 3rd order of St. Francis. Currently, the castle is private and closed for public.
Hlavnice castle was built in 1792 by the manor owner Ondrej Renard. Original classicist character was almost erased by later construction changes. In 1810 Hlavnice manor and the castle were bought by Josef Gusnar of Komarno. Then until 1838 there were a lot of owners, who changed very often. In 1838 the manor was bought by Vilem Cejka of Badenfeld, who had a chapel consecrated to Virgin Mary the Helper (with a grave) called Kaplice built near the road to Mladecko in 1841. Cejka was not the owner for a very long time and after him Hlavnice was not owned by anybody for more than 5 years in row. As late as in 1886 Hlavnice was bought by Robert Bayer of Bayersburg and the manor was owned by the family until its seizure in 1945. Nowadays the building of the castle is owned by the local farm; former administrative buildings and the castle park are used by the village.
In the place of the castle in Neplachovice there used to be a fortress, which was rebuilt into a Renaissance castle in the period of the Lichnovskys of Vostice in the second half of the 16th century. In 1788 the castle was plundered by Prussian soldiers and it ceased to exist. Marie Elgerova of Eichberg had a new castle built in the same place in 1833 and 1834. The castle in late Empire style is very similar to the castle in Stemplovec. Later it was acquired by the Pillersdorfs, who were the owners until 1945. Currently, it is used for cultural events. It is open only in the occasion of an event. The castle lies in a nature landscape park, which is characteristic of its massive multiple-trunk Small-leaved and Large-leaved linden, the spruce and a collection of Chamaecyparises. Nowadays the park is under reconstruction.
The baroque castle in Melc was founded by the owner of the manor Frantisek Filip of Hodice in the first half of the 18th century. After 1810 Melc is bought by Count Jan of Tenczin. He had the castle rebuilt into Empire style. The castle was shortly owned by Count of Arz and from 1888 until the end of World War II it was owned by an important noble family of the Razumovskys. The castle used to be used e. g. as spa or a hospital. From the beginnig of the 20th century there was a boarding school for children with special needs and in 1985 it transformed into a children’s home, which has been in the castle ever since. Around the castle there is a large natural park with a lot of rare trees and bushes. The park is under state protection. Among the trees you can find a lot of horse-chestnuts. Near the park there is a memorial to German soldiers who died in World War I.
The count Ignác Dominik Chorynský from Ledská had
bought Velké Hoštice in 1754 and he let a new late Baroque château build on the place of original aristocratic domicile. This château with abundant Rococo decorations was built by Ostrava builder Jakub Pánek. This time you can find here an archaeological exhibition, in the cellars there is a bodega and the château is surrounded with a beautiful park.
The castle in Stemplovec was built by Karel Traugott Skrbensky of Hriste in the place of an old baroque castle, which was pulled down in the 19th century. The well-preserved Empire building with a rectangular layout serves as the home for nuns. The nature landscape park by the building of the castle is rather small, but picturesque and what is more, it is dendrologically valuable. When you enter the spacious parterre, your eyes are caught by massive Platanus occidentalis. Another rare tree is the dioecious Ginkgo (female) with fruits, which is not often grown in the gardens and parks as it gives out a strong smell. There are other important woody plants such as the Chamaecyparis, American tulip tree and Red-leaved European beech.
The castle in Stablovice stands in the place of an earlier fortress, which was first mentioned in 1528, when the brothers Pavel, Jan and Vaclav of Zdar accepted the fiefdom of Stablovice. In 1558 Kaspar of Ketre had the fortress converted into a small Renaissance castle. It was rebuilt into baroque style at the second half of the 17th century and into the current appearance about a hundred years later in the period of the Sobeks of Kornice. Its Renaissance origin is shown by sgraffito on the front facade. The Sobeks of Kornice established an ornamental French park, which was followed by the landscape park with many exotic woody plants created in the first half of the 19th century. The axis of the regular part of the park is connected to an old linden alley, which joins the park and nearby small grove. The last repairs of the castle were made in 2001. Nowadays the castle is closed for the public.
The castle in Kyjovice is a one-storey building on rectagular layout in Classicist Baroque style. The original building of 1719 – 1720 was rebuilt in 1783. The neighbour building of the granary with an attic roof, which is nowadays a part of the castle, was built in 1775. Both buildings were connected by a corridor between 1911 and 1929. The last part of the complex is a former administrative building of the second half of the 19th century with L-shape layout and a wooden courtyard balcony. The castle is surrounded by the castle park of the end of the 18th century. In the park there is a Gothic Revival gazebo and a former orangery. It is a protected heritage area, which is surrounded by a stone wall. In front of the area there are sandstone statues of St. John of Nepomuk and St. Florian of the first quarter of the 18th century. Nowadays the building is used as an old people’s home and is not entered for public. The castle has well-preserved stucco decorations, window and door panes. In the castle there is also a former castle chapel of oval layout with a dome and wooden oratory.
- a proof of the castle architecture originated in several style periods – a centre of the building from 16th century
- from the original building remained a portal with a coat of arms preserved dated 1498
- further reconstruction took place in 19th and 20th century.
- an English park founded at the turn of the 19th and 20th century
surrounds the buildings of the castle from all the points of the compass
- area: 1,7 ha, altitude: 230 m
The oldest building in the village is the Slavkov castle. The earlier wooden fortress of the 13th century was rebuilt into a brick one by Benes Cernohorsky of Boskovice in the 15th century. The building was not suitable for changing lifestyle, although, so between 1572 and 1586 in the period of the Vlks of Konecchlumi it was converted into a Renaissance castle. In the 17th century the castle did not have any inhabitants and it was only used as business and administrative centre. It gradually fell into disrepair. In 1908 the castle was bought by the Weisshuhns, who made extensive construction changes. The last owners of the castle were the Theins, who lost the castle in 1945, when it was seized by the government. In 2000 the castle was completely reconstructed and got its original appearance. The building is now used as an old people’s home.
The main feature of Jezdkovice is a late Renaissance castle with a decorative garden, which was built by the Mitrovskys of Nemysle between 1618 and 1619. In the first half of the 18th century, when the castle was owned by the Halamas of Jicin, it was rebuilt in baroque style. The last owners were the Sedlnickys of Choltice between 1821 and 1945. The castle is under cultural protection and currently, there is a municipal office, library and grocery. In a small park in spring the visitors’ eyes are caught by yellow-blooming shrubs of Cornelian cherry, whose fruits are bright red. There are also Red-leaved European beech and the a group of Common hornbeam. All the woody plants are topped by eastern white pine.
The Baroque château with an early Baroque portal was built in 1724 – 1748. Nowadays the château is completely reconstructed and it is the seat of the Municipal Offi ce.
This early Baroque château from the 17th century was built by Jiří Lichnovský. In 1853 the House of Cavaliers was annexed to have the possibility for accommodation of guests. the château was served as
a hunting-lodge, the emperor Wilhelm II had been one of the guests – it was after the unifi cation of German-speaking people in 1781, he was a close friend of the 6th duke Karl Maria Lichnovský. In the 19th century a crypt of princes Lichnovský was built in the park. Since 1952 there has been a rehabilitative institution here. In the area of this château you can find a nice park (5,5 hectares).
The style of the castle in Velke Heraltice is hard to define. The basis is the remains of the Gothic castle with a cylinder tower of the 14th century. The large and small courtyards with a Gothic Revival chapel are surrounded by the remains of a Renaissance castle, where there is currently a primary and secondary school, school canteen, dormitory and children’s home. The building is closed for public. Near the castle buildings there is a nature landscape park. After you enter though the gate, your eye is caught by the eight-trunk Pterocarya fraxinifolia, which grows in front of the castle. Near the playground there is a conspicuous solitaire Canadian hemlock and behind the castle on the rear terrace there is a very old Tilia petiolaris and in front of it a huge Abies cephalonica. The important trees have tags with the name and its short characteristics.
The baroque castle in Radkov-Dubova was built in the place of the homestead that used to belong to the castle Vikstejn by Jan Julius Frobel, the owner of the Vikstejn manor, between 1774 and 1776. The castle was the seat of manor management and also the owners such as Emanuel Glassner – an Opavian businessman and MP - lived here. Kamilo Razumovsky and his family lived here from 1884, too. In the period of German occupation the castle was used as a field hospital for German soldiers. After the war the Razumovskys left for Austria and their Czechoslovak property was seized. Then the castle was used as an agriculture secondary school and at the beginning of the 1960’s a children’s home was established here. By the castle there is a charming park. When visitors enter the spacious parterre, they notice two American Sycamores. The central part of the park is behind the pond, where there are many old and huge woody plants such as Chamaecyparis pisifera, Pitch pine, Swiss pine, Canadian hemlock, conspicuous four-trunk Sweet chestnut and more. The castle and the hamlet of Dubova are connected by 250-metre-long and more than 150-year-old linden alley.
The village of Steborice belongs to the oldest villages in Opava region, it was first mentioned in writing as early as in 1220 when the village was owned by the Cistercian Order. Among other owners of the manor was the family of Bruntalsky of Vrbno; since 1654 Steborice belonged to the Neuhausen family. It was very likely the Earl Caesar Neuhaus who had a minor Baroque castle built. In the 18th century Steborice was the property of the family of Pins of Friedenthal who rebuilt the castle in the Empire style and in the 19th century founded a minor sized natural landscape park. They had an orangery and family tomb built in the park. The park is interlaced with numerous footpaths and is connected with an orchard. Today, in the already adapted park, tree species like Hybrid Plane, Common Beech, Eastern White Pine and European Ash predominate over more exotic tree species like Southern Catalpa, Lawson´s Cypress, Sawara Cypress, Northern Whitecedar and Western Redcedar. The last owners of the castle were the entrepreneurial family of Janotta who owned it until 1945.
In the place of the castle in Lodenice there used to be a margrave office. The owner of the manor Martin Kynar of Serfenstejn had the building rebuilt into a small Renaissance castle at the end of the 16th century. In 1592 the building was used as a printing works. In the mid-18th century Jan Julius of Frobel became the owner and had the castle rebuilt in Baroque style. The castle park with a wide range of woody plants of local origin was established at the beginning of the 19th century by the Sedlnickys of Choltice. In front of the main entrance there are four massive English yews. The pendant Douglas-fir and Pacific redcedar are rarer. The castle is currently used for commercial purposes as a hotel.
The Basilica of the John the Baptist is a reduced and a little changed copy of the Cathedral in Cologne. the building from 1906 in pseudo-
Gothic style presents the central part of the whole complex – a fence wall and a gate, a tomb, a vicarage and some fi eld sheds belong to it,
too. the whole complex has been a cultural monument since 1990. the basilica and the vicarage are work by a church builder in Silesia Josef Siefried from Kravaře. All picutres, including the Way of the Cross, wee painted by a patriot of Hlučín Johannes bochenek in 1902 – 1909.
The trainer is carried on in the village Sudice. Planes have already their tradition in the village. The first was placed here as early as 1965, within celebrations of 20th aniversary of liberation. This was about JAK11, known also as C11. It was a training plane developed in Russia in 1947. Nowadays it is located in Kunovice by Uherské Hradiště in the museum of the local aerclub, whose members took interest in it in exchange for another one. So that JAK11 was exchanged for a present jet trainer L29 Delfín, which belongs to one of the most successful planes of the Czechoslovak afterwar aviation. It was solidly constructed, had good flight features, reliable and easy operation, enabling a mass production. The aircraft became a basic training type not only in our country, but also in many countries of Europe, Asia and Africa.
This brick building from rye bricks from 1913 was built on the place of a former water mill from 1756, which was used until 1964 with preserved mill machines.
The building of the Evangelical Church cannot be passed on the road in direction to the Polish border pass. It is used by Evangelical and Orthodox church. the festive consecrating of this new Evangelical church took place on 19. September 1909.
One of the main dominant feature of the town is the St. John the Baptist parish church next to the castle. It is not known when and who built it, however it belongs to the oldest churches all around here. The first mention of it comes from 1378. One-aisle building with a gothic presbytery arched with a star-shaped vault, the chapel is of the Renaissance origin. The front and the tower are adapted in a Baroque style.. In 1597 the large tower fell down and major part of the church was pulled down. In 1608 the church was rebuilt, but in 1616 it became a victim of a terrible fire in the town. In 1649 the church was struck by lightning which destroyed the tower and the church roof repaired a short time ago. In the end of March 1780 there was laid a foundation stone of a new deanery and the building was finished in 1781. In the period 1998 - 2001 was repaired an interior of the church, including paintings and statues. In 2006 there was carried on a new organ into the church.
Until 1938 Zábřeh as an independent village had no own sanctuary. On local believers´initiative there was founded in 1935 založena "Association for building a church " with a monthly membership subscription amounting to one CZK. The building of the church had started in the same year on the land provided by one of local farmers and the aisle of the church with an onion-shaped tower roof was finished, before the German troops occupied the territory, in October 1938. As the church was not properly consecrated, divine services took place with regard to war events of World War II unregularly in a month. The front passing through the Hlučín region in April 1945 damaged considerably the church with the tower as well as the whole village. In 1946 after a partial repair there was celebrated a mass by the local native canon Mr. Josef Vrchovecký. In 1947 there was repaired the tower changing the shape of the roof in a polylateral pyramid. Needed facilities such as a pulpit, a lateral altar, statuettes and paintings of the saints were brought into the church from the cancelled chapel in Nový Jičín. A wall painting of the church was made by the local native Vilém Balarin. On 30th October 1948 was the church solemnly consecrated by the bishop of Olomouc, church patron´s St. Urban´s holy relics were inserted in the altar stone. Since restoration in 1945 till now is the church a branch to the St. Martin parish church in Dolní Benešov, it is however in care of local believers.
The history of founding the St. Margaret Church in Hlučín are connected with the village Dlouhá ves, situated in the area from today´s Mountfield up to the restaurant Stará celnice. After the town Hlučín had been founded Premyslid Otokar II gave it lands belonging to Dlouhá ves. This village had no its own church and a cemetery around the St. John the Baptist parish church was too small as there were buried the deceased from Dlouhá ves, Bobrovníky, Darkovičky and Vřesina. That is why Bernard of Zvole´s brother Kryštof (canon of Olomouc) had built a new St. Margaret church with a cemetery and a hospital. Out of respect to his mother and in memory of her he gave the church her name - Margaret. First church was made of wood and stood a bit nearer to town. It burned down several times - in 1645, 1802 and the last time in 1945, when it was hit by a bomb. The foundation stone to present walled church was laid on 23rd November 1820. The cemetery church area had been closed with a boundary wall of various sort, with an entrance gate from 19th century. The area also includes a morgue – a neogothic building made of the facework unplastered masonry. Dlouhá ves (present Dlouhoveská street) was annexed to Hlučín on 10th July 1911 by William II ´s order. The church became the cultural monument on 3rd May 1958.
In 2009 the village Bolatice decided to repair the cross situated behind a gamekeeper´s lodge in Chuchelenský forest. This cross was built many years ago in memory of a cruel murder of the local teacher Oskar Kuroň. Oskar Kuroň was born in the Polish Lubeck about 1870 and he came to Bolatice in spring 1894 to work here as a teacher at a local school. Children got to like him for his new methods and a kind approach. In Bolatice he also experienced his fateful love having fallen in love with the gamekeeper´s girl in Chuchelná. This love had never been realized due to envy and hate and ended in September 1895 by brutal murder of the teacher caused by unknown murderers. A newly repaired stone cross and a granite stone across the road, about 50 meters away, where the murdered teacher´s body was found reminds of this tragedy. The repaired cross will thus ever remind of the story which had happened here and also its unhappy end. The fate of Bolatice teacher was described in the book "The stone witness" by the regional writer Anna Malchárková.
In 1922 Josef Václavík, an agriculturer of Kobeřice – Osmilány, built in the garden of his farm a chapel in honour to the Virgin Mary. Impulse thereof was the promise given in the course of World War I. He undertook to show his gratitude to the Virgin Mary by building a chapel if came as the only son back from war ravings alive and healthy. Application for permission to consecrate the chapel was made on 5th July 1922. The chapel was consecrated by Mr. Josef Otava.
This chapel from 1932 was built with help of voluntary benefi ts of local inhabitants. the whole chapel was built from 44 500 baked bricks. In its
interior you can fi nd a main altar in the Gothic style, a sculptural group of the SS apostles Peter and Paul and the statue of the Queen Mary Virgin of Lourde – it is located on the top of the altar.
A chapel protected by a care of historical monuments in street Vrablovecká. Swedes have been here on their ways in the Thirty Years’ War twice and the dead are buried under this chapel.
The dominating feature is the St. George Church from the end of the 18th century.
The parish church was consecrated in 1747 and it has a tower, which is located on unusual eastern side. It is together with an enclosing wall and a near chapel from the 2nd half of the 19th century a cultural sight protected by law. the interior of this church is abundantly decorated with frescos by the painter from Opava in the 18th century Josef Matyáš Lassler and with pictures of Way of the Cross painted by Mr Vincenc Hurník, a many years priest of Bohuslavice.
This preserved rather impressive fortifi cation, which is a rest of
a medieval little castle, is situated in a wood (“Pánský les”) right from the main road Závada – Bohuslavice. Its own heart has proportions
26 x 22 metres, the fi rst moat is on the top 14 metres wide and at the bottom 2 metres, the other moat 10 metres on the top and 1,5 metres at the bottom.
The St. Hedwig’s Church is a dominant of the village. It was consecrated on 3. July 2005. the Way of the Cross is a work by the Academic painter Milivoj Husák.
St. Cross chapel is situated in the Opavská street, on the west side of the town Dolní Benešov. Building of the chapel was started in 1872 in the neogothic style made of the facework, completed with arcade in the fronton and the walls are peripherally fastened with stepped counterforts. It was Rotschild´s dominion forest supervisor Karel Exner who played an important role in construction of the chapel dedicating it to the inhabitants of Benešov for his peaceful stay in Benešov. Having got necessary licenses and funds he unexpectedly died short after the building of the chapel had strated. Building of the chapel was finished by his nephew Fridrich Exner. But even this continuator of his uncle´s work had died before the building of the chapel was finished in 1874. Unfinished building undertook Mrs. Müller née Exnerová from Ratiboř, who managed to finish building of the chapel using her own funds, those of the town clerk of Benešov Jan Kořistka as well as the royal forester Exner from Schlezwig´s funds. Opening ceremony was made on 14th Sept. 1877 by the parish priest of Benešov Mr. Kopecký at participation of 11 priests, including a significant personality of Hlučín and Silesian region, the priest Cyprián Lelek – a native of Benešov. The chapel with the space for 300 persons is equipped with the altarpiece of Christ.
The church was built in 1678 on the place of a former wooden church. The St. Joseph’s Chapel was built to this church in 1723. In 1812 – 1814
the interior of the church was reconstructed.
In 1843 – 1844 an organ from the workshop of an organist in Opava Karl Kuttler was installed. the last big building adaptations were made in 1861 – 1863, the tower was built, too.
The Evangelical church in Hlučín was built in 1862. Preparation of construction started on 11th May 1862 and the foundation stone was consecrated on 3rd June 1862. In the same year on 27th October a cap was put on the tower and a cross put up. The church was consecrated and administred from Ratiboř. The Evangelical church in Hlučín is built on the cross ground plan made of facework with polygonal, pyramid-shaped steeple in crossing of roofs. The church was paved with red flagstones and slate, it has a wooden ceiling opened into timberwork with beams decorated with carving, windows made of stained glass set in lead, a wooden pulpit and a double brass chandelier with beaten chalices (diameter: 1,15m, 16 candles). In 1898 there was built chapel (a tomb) in the cemetery behind the church, where Wilhelm Wettekamp and members of his family are buried. In 1938 the church was assigned to the town property. It wasn´t until 1947 that the church got provided by František Avrat with power supply, chimney for heating it and it was painted by Vilém Sněhota. In 1948 broken windows were repaired by the local glazier Štěpán Gruň, in 1949 was repaired the organ and the roof of the church was repaired by the roofer František Šafarčík. In 1965 the cemetery and the church were closed down. In the same year the pastor Vladislav Santarius from Ostrava founded here a preaching station of the Silesian evangelical church of Augsburger profession. In the years 1964-1995 the church was used by the Bohemian Brethren Evangelical Church (supported by Dr. Karel Pala and friar Karel Uhřík), together with the group of believers from The Fraternity of Baptists and the Czechoslovak Hussite Church. The Bohemian Brethren Evangelical Church as a manager and user of the chapel handed the building on 29th May 1995, due to the lack of funds needed for repairs, over to the town of Hlučín. On 8th June 1995 the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic declared the Evangelical Church In Hlučín the cultural monument. From 1996 to 2001 the church went through extensive building repairs amounting to under 6 mill. CZK covered by the town shared by the government and under supervision of the Monument Institute. These days is the building included into the Cultural Centre of Hlučín and used for giving musical concerts or work of art exhibitions, activities corresponding with the building and room in point. Helpful approach of the town Hlučín made it possible to preserve the outstanding building monument, which will further serve to develop spirit and cultural feeling of the human being.
An infantry log cabin MO-S 21 U Jaroše was built up in 1936 in order to protect the industrial area of Ostrava, together with other buildings, against the enemies during World War II. The log cabin in the building subarea Hlučín was built up so that it could theoretically resist all kinds of weapons known in those days. The building was however after Munich Agreement occupied by the German Wehrmacht, its construction was finished and fully equipped and armed. After the war there was no interest in these fortified buildings and they progressively became dilapidated. In 2005 a group of enthusiasts joined together by the log cabin MO-S 21, whose aim was to rebuild the log cabin to a fortification area designed for museum and military-cultural activities. Until 2006 the building had been under the leadership of Josef Čuraj adapted and decontaminated from waste. Missing parts and equipment were searched for and manufactured. In 2009 was established an official civic society KVH MO-S 21 - Družstvo Stráže Obrany Státu, o.s. The club´s activity is focused on building a high quality museum for the general public and a background for the members who want to be engaged in the club. Every year there are prepared many interesting exhibits for the visitors in the museum and once in a year an all-day action called „Opevněná hranice“ (Fortified border).
The granary is a kind of the building, designed to store threshed corn. This granary was on 3rd May 1958 listed into cultural immovable monuments.
The brewery cellars are remains of the original castle brewery of Duke Lichnovsky. It was first mentioned in 1549. It was probably in those times when the production of beer was moved from the area of Hradec castle downward to the Moravice River and to the newly established manorial farmstead called ‘Stranka’. Large cellars were dug into the rock face of the slope of the Moravice River. During Thirty Years’ Wars they served as a hideaway for the Hradec Mint, where false (light) Austrian coins were minted with the help of the Danes. In the premises beer brewing then resumed. In 1825 Opava citizens’ brewery became its competitor, which was difficult to face. In 1848 the rule that the serves had to buy beer from the Duke brewery was abolished, and thus the production stop being efficient for Duke Lichnovsky. In 1885 the Duke rented the premises of the brewery. At the beginning of the 20th century an amply visited restaurant with a garden skittle alley was here. In 1921 the badly-maintained buildings were in precarious state and the owner had them demolished.
The New Gothic cathedral was built in 1906 and 1907. It is a lengthwise one-aisled construction built partly from rye bricks and from glazed bricks, too. the prismatoid tower reaches the height of 75 meters. In the interior there is an organ from the year 1932.
This building is interesting because of its architectural construction – it is built of rye bricks and it has not been damaged slightly in its fronts.
In the village Bělá there is situated an old gamekeeper´s lodge by Bělský les. This gamekeeper´s lodge with seven fundamental stones was built in 1856 by the family of Rothschilds that substantially affected life of the village. The gamekeeper´s lodge is built of facework and its style and appearance is suitable for excursions and relaxation. The gamekeeper´s lodge - "Hájenka U Chmelíka" si part of the trout farm built here by this family as early as in 1864. These days you can enjoy these fish delicacies, which you can catch yourself having hired a fishing rod.
The old fire station is an original building from the years 1913 – 1914. It was built on initiative of Kobeřice firemen, the village and the princely family of Lichnovský of Chuchelná. It is situated in present Hlučínská street, next to the Assumption church and is striking by its drying chamber wooden tower bearing on the walled ground floor.
The building is situated in place of the original cemetery, beside an evangelical church. This is an Empire funebral building, which Vilém Wetekampf had built in 1898 as a family burial place. Vilém Wetekamp was a head accountant of Rothschild property, he ran the Treasury during the building of an evangelical church taking active part himself in it. In the tomb there are buried 4 members of this family in total. The main front of the tomb is completed with a triangular gable with a large angel head. There is a statue of a woman with a laurer branch on the top of the cupola roof. This cultural monument declared on 3rd May 1958 is a unique building in the district Opava.
Jakubcovice lies on the historically important road from Opava to Novy Jicin, which was often used by various foreign armies from the 17th to 20th century. That is why there were built minor ground fortifications near the village. During Silesian Wars at the end of the 18th century they were widened and improved. The new ground fortifications called ‘sance’ in Czech were visited by well-known Austrian commander Ernst Gideon Laudon shortly before his death in 1790. A new main feature of the village is a 15.5 m high view tower ‘Sance’ standing in 522 m.a.s.l. It is open for public with free admission. The view tower was built close to historic ground fortifications in 2005. Apart from the view of the Beskydy and Jeseniky Mountains as well as lowlands around the city of Opava, you can also see a 250-year-old memorial small-leaved lime-tree (Tilia cordata), which grows near the road leading from Hradec to Jakubcovice.
A romantic eight-sides central building from a rye masonry without plaster from the beginning of the 20th century. In the chapel the remains of the 5th duke Karl Mario Lichnovský, his wife Mary
princess von Croy Důllmen and their son the 6th duke Karl Max Lichnovský are situated. In 2009 the artefacts of the remains were opened up to the public – 56 years after their enclosing in a wall in 1953.
The small walled chapel was built in 1899 in the part of the town Kravaře - Kouty. It stands on the site where originally stood a wooden small chapel. A new chapel was built up in honour of the primacy of two new priests - Jan Kaluža and Jan Urbisch.
The church comes from 1793, it was reconstructed to the present appearance in 1903. the bell Peter, cast in 1668, is in the tower of the church.
It was built in 1930 by the builder Luzar of Kouty by Kravaře in the modern Romanesque style. It is covered with slate, its tower with copper metal plate. It is 28m long, 14m wide and its tower is 40m high and it has 6 bells. The building was built in the time of the economical crisis during
unbelievable short time – 5 month. In 2004 it was reconstructed.
The historical dominant of the village is the St. Lawrence Church, which was built in 1743, today it is a pilgrimage site for St. Mary, which was
appointed by the bishop Ostrava – Opava. the Baroque statues of SS Peter and Paul are preserved here and a complex of fi ve pictures from 1784 painted by the painter from Opava F. Licht. On the main altar in
the St. Lawrence Church there is a Mother of God painting, about 280 years old, which was blessed by Pope in 2001. In 2003 an outdoor Way of St. Cross was fi nished in the area of the pilgrimage site. the Way of ceramics reliefs has got a holiday and park part, too.
It is a Baroque wooden church from 1730, which was renewed in 1842.The interior equipment comes mainly from the 30th years of the 18th century.
It was fi nished in 1928 by technical supervision of Franz Luzar.
This one-aisled Baroque building was built by Opava Jesuitical house in 1731.
A parish church from 1756 changed later to historicised style.
This Baroque Church was built in 1773 by Ostrava builder Jakub Pánek,it is decorated with frescoes by the painter Sebastini.
The New-Gothic church navy was made by the famous local builder Josef Seyfried (1865 -1923).
The parish church from 1921 – 1924.
A Baroque church from 1713.
The New Gothic parish church from the year 1896 was built on the place of an old wooden church with bells, which come from the years 1487 and 1499.
It was completely rebuilt in 1931, a the Virgin Mary Chapel was built and a new sacristy was annexed. In the fi ghts in the World War II the church was very destructed.
It is a modern building, which is an important dominant of the village.
The chapel comes from 1889.
A chapel from 1898.
St. Michal chapel in Kravře Dvořisko in Milan Kubice street has a corrugated gable, a round corner and an unusually high hexagonal sanctus small tower, ended with an onion cupola and a cross. Over a small portal there is an inscription on a plastic band as follows: "Saint Michal, pray for us " and the year 1822.
St. Joseph Chapel is situated in the settlement Svoboda, a part of the village Štěpánkovice.
The chapel is situated near St. Lawrence church in Pišť. It is a unique chapel in octagonal form from the late 19th century. The chapel is consecrated to St. John Nepomuk, whose sandstone statue from 18th century is located in its interior. On 3rd May 1958 it was declared the cultural monument.
The chapel is located in the garden of a country farm of the family Kašný, in Slezská street. Along its northeast side flows a brook that is bridged right in the site and goes on in the pipeline. Today´s construction dates back to as late as the year 1907, but it is evident from an application for consecration permission dated 22nd May 1907, that it had been built up on the foundations of the former chapel. Present chapel was consecrated by Mr. Josef Otava on 23rd May 1907. In 1990 people began to meet again in front of the chapel not only on the Saint´s Day, but also during the processions celebrating the feast of Corpus Christi and Cross Days.
St. John the Baptist Chapel dates back to 1957.
You can find this large walled chapel in the Hlučínská street. The inhabitants of Kouty built it in 1887 on the territory called "Vršek". Until then there was only one wooden small chapell in the middle of Kouty. Beside St. John the Baptist chapel stands there up till now an original marble cross. German inscription thereon says "I am the way , truth and life ".
The chapel consecrated to St. Barbara is situated on today´s Miner´s museum area OKD in Ostrava - Petřkovice. It was carried here from its original place, from the busy Českobratrská street in the centre of Ostrava, where it stood until early 90s of the 20th century. The chapel was built in the 80s of the 19th century the Ostrava master-builder František Jurečka, as a compensation for destroyed s.c. Foltýn´s chapel (pulled down due to Vítkovice development expansion).. A new chapel ws consecrated to the Virgin Mary of Lourdes, later called St. Ann´s chapel, was built in the style of industrial Art Nouveau of facework bricks. The chapel had not for long been kept in good repair and in 1991 it was thought to be demolished. Thanks to members of the club of friends of the Miner´s museum OKD the chapel was carried to the area of the Miner´s museum where it became part of the exhibition. Patronage of the chapel was changed in St. Barbara, patron of miners. The chapel was reconsecrated on 4th December 1993. The woodcut of St. Barbara is the work of an unknown artist of mid 19th century and it was originally a part of the altar in the craft room of this mine Anselm.
The New Gothic building built about 1920 from red rye bricks.
The Chapel of the Virgin Mary of the Rosary was built in 1895, its reconstruction was realized in 1997. In its nearness you can fi nd an erratic block.
A small sacral monument is situated not far away from the housing estate of Hlučín, on the corner of Písečná and Cihelní streets. It belongs to one of the oldest constructions on the territory of the town Hlučín. Referring to historical sources it was a Baroque chapel dated back to the year 1690. This historical building has over many years been in bad state due to moisture. Careless plastering in the past completely removed its style character. In 2006 it passed through extensive reconstruction giving it back its historical form. There was adapted a floor construction. The chapel was given a new internal and external plaster coat copying masonry unevenness which has an authentic effect putting the finishing touches to its value. The building has a slate covering, new covering with sheet metal and new windows and doors. The chapel was by Ministry of Culture on 2nd May 2006 declared a cultural monument.
The early Baroque chapel from 1657 was bombed out in the war and reconstructed after the year 1945.
The chapel stands by the road on the border of cadastre of the villages Kobeřice and Rohov and is exclusive through its construction. The ground plan of the chapel is in form of an isosceles triangle to show which belief secret it is consecrated to. The chapel was built by Jan Stuchlík, an agriculturer from Kobeřice. The chapel was built in 1905 and consecrated to the Saint Trinity. Application for permission to consecrate the chapel is dated on 23rd August 1905. It was a religious administrator Josef Otava who complied with it. An oval oil painting coming from the original Baroque church in Kobeřice was carried on in the chapel.
This small chapel in Vrbka was built from red rye bricks in New Gothic in 1909. It is a part of a complex of buildings, which were bult in Hlučínsko in the early 20th century – their style is typical for the northern German New Gothic style.
The modern chapel was built in 1997. the building is modern and its appearance is very attractive. It has a designed ground-plan in the shape of an equilateral triangle, so the building has got a simple, but special shape. For the festive starting of the building there was prepared a basic stone, which was concentrated by Pope Johann Paul II
during his visit of Olomouc in 1995. Very striking are the window-pages, which illuminate the building and give a spirit impression.
The church built in Bolatice in 1703 is consecrated to St. Stanislav, a Polish bishop. In 1912 it was enlarged, in 1999 – 2001 the both towers and the roof were completly reconstructed.
St. Nicholas chapel (former the Virgin Mary´s) is situated in the street Hlučínská, right at the periphery of the village Bolatice in direction to Dolní Benešov. It concerns a Baroque chapel from early 18th century, which went in 2005 through an extensive reconstruction and also was reconsecrated. On the 3rd May 1958 it was declared a listed cultural monument.
The branch church consecrated in 1933 with an artifi cial small cave of Lourde style and a statue of the Virgin Mary Lourde.
The Cervena hora (749 m a.s.l.) is the highest point and, at the same time, the only true volcano, i.e. stratovolcano, in the Opava district. It is a part of Domasov upland of the Nizky Jesenik. The volcano was fully active about two million years ago. You are approximately one kilometre as the crow flies to the west from the top, on the place of former basalt quarries. The bigger of the quarries is more attractive. Its quarry face is up to twenty meters high. The ancient volcanic activity is apparent from a lava knot that emerges from earth in the middle of the drawn basalt quarry. This locality is characteristic for ball-structure parting of basalt and occurrence of dark green olivine. The typical rock of this area is also clay shale forming walls around the basalt knot. However, it does not have its typical grey colour here. Due to heat of effluent magma, it took the colour of a fired brick. In the surroundings, you can observe beautiful blossoming and partially grazed meadows with many butterflies and insects.
The church of Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary in Velke Heraltice was first mentioned in 1465. A brick late Gothic church burnt down in 1749 after it was struck by a lightning. After the reconstruction of 1751 it got its current late baroque appearance. In the cemetery near the church there is a tomb of the last aristocratic owners of the castle, the Bellegardes, who owned the village until 1945. The tomb was built in collonade style and in its gable there is a coat of arms of the Bellegardes. In the area of the church there is the chapel of Grieving Virgin Mary of the end of the 18th century.
The church in Velka Polom, consecrated to the patron saint of the Czech and Moravian Lands, Premyslid Duke Saint Wenceslas, was founded probably at the end of the 13th century. Its early building consisted only of a chapel with a cross vault. Gradually it was enlarged and finished. First at the turn of the 14th and 15th century when its size was not satisfying any more, then in 1589 when a middle part of the church nave was added. In 1741 the present church steeple was finished, in 1782 a vicarage was built and 60 years later a small church steeple with a sanctus bell was added. In 1857 the area of the church with the vicarage and cemetery was enclosed by a wall which is also listed. In 1859 an oratorio with a vestry was added. In the area of the church you can find a memorial lime tree which, according to a legend, was planted at the very place as early as at the time of the construction of the original church. Another legend says that it didn´t happen until 1589. Being 130 cm high, its trunk has considerable 570 cm in girth.
In Stare Techanovice there used to be an old little church at the local cemetery. It was consecrated to St. Nicolas. However, this building was destroyed by a windstorm in 1829 and pulled down due to its dismal state. A new church on a different place was finished in 1835 and newly consecrated to St. Peter and Paul. It is a simple one-nave building. The interior equipment of the church comes primarily from the 19th century. The church area is decorated with wood carvings of the saints Peter and Paul from the mid-18th century and Christ on the cross from the second half of the 18th century. An organ from the workshop of Andelska Hora by the organ builder Staudinger is situated in the choir.
Healing springs at the Moravice River were known and used by local people since the days of yore. The first documented news about them comes from 1640. In 1810 the Melc manor was purchased by the Earl Jan Tenczin; having built first spa buildings he thus founded a village of Janske Koupele. In 1814 he sold the manor together with the spa to the Earl Jan Arz of Vasseg. At that time a spring was found; the earl named it after his daughter Pavlina. The greatest boom of the spa began after 1895 when Janske Koupele was purchased by the Earl Kamillo Razumovsky. Apart from the generous reconstruction and modernization of the spa a well for the spring named after Razumovsky´s wife Marie was dug out. The spa was in service till 1940 when the German occupation administration first established a Hitlerjugend training camp there, and later a prisoner-of-war camp for Allied officers. After 1945 the spa was put under state ownership and the family of Razumovsky left for exile. Janske Koupele was used till 1993 as a holiday house and a sanatorium. Then the buildings started to decay. Since 2003 the area is owned by a private owner.
In Vetrkovice at the place of todays church a wooden little church stood as early as in 1471. Originally the carpenters wanted to build it in the valley under the hill, but according to a legend, prepared timbers appeared overnight at the top of the hill. When the same thing happened again the following day, they decided to build the little church at the hillock where also the new church stands. The original wooden building endured for more than 350 years, but at the beginning of the 19th century the little church was really dilapidated and there was a danger of collapse. Therefore it was pulled down and on the very spot a new walled church was built between 1834 – 1838. In 1902 a new vestry was added to the church. During the World War I not only bells were commandeered, but also old organ pipes, therefore the church acquired new organ by the Rieger company from Krnov in 1919. The church interior is equipped with pseudo-baroque pulpit from the 19th century or an altar painting by Alois Zapletal from 1937. The church had been renovated during the time - in 1931, 1964 and after 2005.
The original St. Katerina´s church in Sosnova was in the late 17th century described as small, old and poor. It was vaulted only in the presbytery, it had two altars, one consecrated to St. Katerina; the side altar was the altar of God´s Mother. Three bells were hung in the steeple, one coming from 1667. Among other equipment of the church a font and a statue of God´s Mother could be found. Because of its dismal state the church was reconstructed in the Baroque style between 1725-27. The interior acquired rich stucco decoration; besides, a painting by Ignac Raab and Rennaissance tombstones are placed there. The journey to the church is adorned with Baroque carvings of St. Jan Nepomucky from 1744 and St. Florian from 1730-1740. In the second half of the 20th century the church was statically fixed, drained and some restoration works on the painting as well as on the interior equipment of the church were carried out. The church, a fence wall with a metal wrought gate as well as both statues are historic landmarks.
The Chaple of St. Anthony of Padua of 1871 used to stand in the centre of Uhlirov in the place of the original granary. During the battles of 1945 the chapel was destroyed, although, and after the end of World War II it was pulled down. Following political and social development did not favored construction of a new chapel. It was built as late as in 2000 from the morgue in the local cemetery. In the place of the earlier chapel there is currently a memorial to killed soldiers. The wooden belfry with a cross in the centre of the village belongs to unique monuments in the region. The building of the school in Art Nouveau style is of 1885. The building was completely reconstructed and is now used as a kindergarten. The granary was built between 1845 and 1849 and currently it is going to be adapted to a new purpose.
The wooden church of St. Philip and James in Moravice was probably here as early as in 1300. It served its purpose for many centuries, but only in 1735 it was replaced with a brick church in baroque style. After completion three bells were put into the church steeple. One of them was already in the old church and was of 1697 and two bells were new – one was big and was called Maria Hilf and the other bell was small. In 1864 the big bell broke and was melted in two new ones. Unfortunately, in 1914 all the bells were seized for war purposes and were temporarily replaced with steel bells. New bells were consecrated and hung in 1928. These did not serve for long as well. During the fire in 1954 there were destroyed. The church itself was much damaged and only the peripheral walls remained. Devoted parishioners helped construct and renew the church and in October 1958 the church was consecrated again. The church was last reconstructed in 1996.
The parish church of St. Lawrence was built in 1603 by the fiefholder Kaspar Rotmberk of Ketre in the place of an earlier wooden little church. In the church there are six sandstone grave ledgers of Lords of Rotmberk, which have survived from that period. Between the side entrance and the sacristy there is a set of four tombs of the Sobeks of Kornice. They were made from Silesian marble. In 1785 the church became too small for all parishioners, so in 1854 a new church started to be built. It was completed in 1855. It was built partly from bricks and partly from stone, with a stone floor; the roof was covered with slate. The original steeple of 1603 survived. The central altar was again consecrated to St. Lawrence; the side alters were consecrated to St. Salvator and St. Ann. In 1905 a new organ was built by an organ master Matej Strmiska from Uherske Hradiste. In 1947 three new bells were consecrated and they are still in operation in the church.
Three crosses that stand by the main road connecting Opava and Melc symbolize Christ’s martyrdom on Calvary. In the middle cross, which is the biggest, there is crucified Christ; on the other smaller two we can see the figures of malefactors. Between two wooden crosses there are two poles with tin figures of saints. On the left pole there is a figure of Grieving Virgin Mary and a figure of St. John on the right one. A legend tells the crosses were built in Stablovice after the village survived plundering by Swedish armies during Thirty Years’ War. The villages of Otice and Uhlirov were plundered and marauding gangs set to plunder Stablovice as well. Before they reached the village, a messanger rushed with an order for them to return to Opava. Three crosses are also depicted in the painting of Stablovice manor, which the Sobeks of Kornice had made by Opavian artist Ignac Gunther.
The church of the Most Holy Trinity is a striking feature in Svatonovice. It was built in the second half of the 17th century. It was probably built in the place where a chapel or a small church used to stand, because on the church bell there was the year of 1611. Unfortunately it was seized during World War I. Baroque church was rebuilt in the 18th century; it was extended by a new central altar and a side-alter of St. John of Nepomuk. Some more adjustments were made in the 1930’s and the interior was restored at the end of the 20th century. The church, which is protected cultural heritage, is surrounded by a wall with Empire entrance gate of the beginning of the 19th century. Near the church there are memorials to the victims of World War I and II.
According to the Map of Moravia by John Amos Comenius of 1624, there could have been a church in Skripov. A wooden church is documented, although, in 1680. As it was in considerable disrepair, it was pulled down in 1841 and within three years a new brick church consecrated to St. John the Baptist was built. During the time when the church was under construction, the church services took place in the building of the local office, which burnt down, and unfortunately all the objects that had been brought here from the original church burnt as well. The church services were then served in the local school. The church was consecrated in 1844. In 1847 a picture of St. John the Baptist by Opavian artist Severin Pfaly was bought for the central altar and new organ was installed. A new organ was bought in 1942. The church bells were repeatedly seized. A new bell was bought and hung in 1971 and is dedicated to the 350th anniversary of martyred death of St. John Sarkander.
A parish church in Slavkov was verifiably built before 1420, but it is not known who it was consecrated to. The battles of Thirty Years’ War led to destruction of the church. Therefore, between 1657 and 1665 Vaclav Sigmund Sedlnicky of Choltice had a new baroque church built in the place of the old one. The single-nave church was consecrated to All Saints. At the beginning of the 19th century the church was reconstructed as it was very dilapidated. After the complete reconstruction was finished in 1814, the church was consecrated to St. Ann. The church bells called John, Urban and Anthony have their historical value. The oldest of them was 500 years old in 1996. The sandstone statue of St. John of Nepomuk of 1722 was moved near the church from its original place near the imperial road behind the homestead in the school garden. In the front side of the pedestal there is a symbol of founders, Earls Podstatkys of Prusinovice.
The chapel of Most Sacred Heart of Jesus stands near the road in the former garden of Mr. Sedlacek. It is an interesting example of prewar sacral architecture. It was built between 1935 and 1936. Its simple appearance shows purist tendencies of that period, but in local form. Its simple interior with wooden barrel vault makes pleasant intimate atmosphere, suitable for contemplation. You should notice the lockets painted by academic artist Jan Danek of Letovice in 1951. The original concrete floor with stylized flowery pattern and the central altar come from the former provost chapel in Opava. The original inventory has not survived, because the chapel was much damaged in aerial bombardment in 1945. The steeple was built again in 1950. When reconstructed the chapel was prolonged and a presbytery was added; it was also equipped with proper invetory.
The chapel of the Most Holy Trinity with a belfry is a valuable monument in Nove Sedlice. Komarov chronicle reports that the chapel was built in 1822. The small altar is decorated with a painting of the Most Holy Trinity. Almost a hundred years later a bell was bought for the chapel and was hung in the steeple. The bell weighed 14 kg, but unfortunately, it was seized in 1942 and sold for 56 Czech crowns. A new bell was bought in 1949. The bell-ringer announced with the bell noon and 6 p.m., which was the hour when everybody should have been at home. The bell was also used as a death-bell. The chapel has undergone a complete restoration. The cross by Frantisek Tizka of 1915 has also been repaired. The park around the chapel provides a pleasant place for relaxation.
The single-nave chapel of St. John and Paul in Hlubocec of 1868 stands almost in the centre of the village. This simple building is accentuated by a huge prism steeple above the entrance, in front of there is a short staircase with forged banister. The safety grille in the entrance is also forge work. The interior is decorated in bright colours with illusive decoration of pilasters and simple ornamental decorations between windows and above the ledge of barrel vault, which is wooden and plastered. The layout and shape were commonly used for village churches of that and later periods in the region. The central altar in Baroque Revival style dominates the simple interior with historical inventory. You can use the inner spiral staircase to go to the choir gallery. You can then continue to the steeple. In the chapel there is a sacristy, which was added on the right side of the presbytery.
The chapel of St. Mary Magdalene with five entrances, which were earlier open, stands on the layout of an oblong octagon, on a mild hill at the end of Stitina. It is a building of the late 16th century, which was considerably modified in later centuries. In its western part there is a survived wooden matroneum of the late 18th century. In the interior you can see a board ceiling and stucco decorations of the pillars with a ledge. The brick floor adds historic atmosphere. There is a small sacristy which was added to the southern part of the chapel. Under the chapel there is a crypt with barrel vault. Nowadays the building is all white, but it probably used to be decorated with sgraffitoes. It is possible that it used to be connected with the near fortress by an underground tunnel. The chapel is under cultural protection.
The chapel of St. Vitus in Budisovice is a Roman Catholic chapel standing in the centre of the village. It was built in 1873 in the place of an earlier wooden chapel. The building of a simple shape was regularly repaired and thus, it changed its appearance. In the 1950’s the original onion dome was replaced with a simple steeple and original slate roof was replaced with asbestos cement roofing. At the end of the 1960’s the chapel was prolonged of 4 metres and the crypt, which can be entered from the side, was added. The last reconstruction was done at the beginning of the 21st century. The facade was restored and the steeple got its original historic shape. The chapel is surrounded by a small park, where there is a memorial to the killed citizens in World War I and II.
The chapel of St. Vitus in Kyjovice stands near the castle and was consecrated on 15 September 1929. Apart from other people, it also happened thanks to donations of Earls Stolbergs, the owners of the manor, whose coat of arms is at the head of the pews. The intimate space of the chapel is vaulted by plastered wooden barrel vault. It is separated from the presbytery by a pointed arch, above which there is decoration by the artist Jindra Sedlak, who was born here. It depicts a crowd of Czech saints looking up at the central figure of Jesus Christ. The interior is decorated with inventory in Gothic Revival style, over which a white and gold central altar dominates. Original door and window panes as well as iron fitting and a concrete floor with leaf motives have also survived. The chapel was realized by the costructor Jakub Vrana of Svinov according to the project of Josef Urbis of Mokre Lazce.
The initiative to build a church in Vresina originated six centuries ago, but in spite of great effort there used to stand only a small chapel. At the end of 1991 a renewed church group of St. Anthony of Padua succeeded in buying a garden and a small house, which is nowadays a parish house, in the centre of the village. The cornerstone was consecrated in 1995 in Olomouc by Pope John Paul II. The construction started in 1997. In accordance with Priest Doctor Studeny the architect Jan Kovar created an organic and dynamic building. The main problem was the static layout connected with the secure stability of the steeple, which is 32 metres high. The construction of the 18-meter-long church took ten months. The layout of the church should symbolize the shape of an open book, bird, fish or open arms. The church was consecrated on 13 June 1998 by Bishop Frantisek Vaclav Lobkowicz.
The parish church of St. John the Baptist in Mokre Lazce was built at the end of the 16th century. Its square steeple ended with a pyramid helmet was built after 1838 and a storeyed sacristy with a depository is of 1854. The church stands in the centre of the village, in the cemetery surrounded by stone wall and creates its natural main feature. It is mainly the interior that makes it unique with obvious Renaissance elements on the vault with thin stucco ribs. The vault was decorated before 1900. The rest of the space is also vaulted. The age of the building is obvious from the massive piers, which support the chancel from outside. For its qualities the church is under cultural protection.
The pilgrimage church of Virgin Mary in Hrabyne stands in the place of an earlier wooden chapel of the end of the 15th century. A new church was built by Earl Arnost Matyas Mitrovsky, the owner of the manor, in the mid-18th century. It was rebuilt between 1885 and 1887 into its current Romanesque Revival appearance. An original set of baroque statues by Jan Michael Scherhauf have survived on the facade. On the central altar there is a worshipped painting of Virgin Mary with little Jesus, which reminds Black Madonna of Czestochowa. There are two legends connected with the beginnings of this pilgrimage site. One of them tells a story of a stranger, who hid a saint picture in bushes, where they were later found by a shepherd looking for the herd. The other story is about a farmer, who unintentionally killed his son in the place of the current church. He was hoping to get absolution on the pilgrimage to Rome, where he got a saint picture from the Pope to hang it in the chapel, which he was asked to build in the place of the murder.
In Dobroslavice we can find a unique monument – conciliation crosses. Those are two small crosses made of one piece of roughly processed stone. The crosses have short rounded bars. One of the bars is longer on both crosses. In the front murder weapons are depicted – a knife and a crossbow. The cross with the knife used to stand in the fields and is connected with the murder of a fellow, which had proposed to a girl living a local mill. The other cross with a crossbow, which is badly legible now, should remind the place of a wanderer’s murder. The crosses were probably made between the 16th and 17th century and both of them are regarded as cultural heritage.
We have come across conciliation crosses over the whole Europe since the Middle Ages. They were usually put in the places of murders and accidents to show the atonement of the culprit.
The Pathway of Czech-German understanding is an international project of the civil association Vlastenecky poutnik (The Patriotic Pilgrim). Since the year 1998, plaques of Silesian granite, expressing the resolution to follow the pathway of understanding in Europe, have been laid at the foot of Cervena Hora (Red Mountain). More than 200 participants including villages, towns, organizations and families of many European countries, the USA and New Zealand have already joined the project. The path symbolically starts where the Seidler’s Cross, commemorating the tragic death of a local peasant, used to stand. One of the mass graves, which can be found right in this place, commemorates fierce fights of the Austro – Prussian wars. One of the battles took place here in 1758. A hundred years later, local citizens built here a little stone monument with the corpus of Christ. The place is dominated by the chapel dedicated to St. John of Nepomuk. It was completed and sanctified in 2011.
Slate was quarried and processed in Budisovice roughly from 1830. Local peasants employed slate for making walls and for paving because it was not suitable for being split into the shape of roof tiles. The slate was, however, appropriate for being worked and polished well, which determined its future use. In the proximity of the quarry a small factory area was gradually created. Jan Wondruska, a master stonemason, became its owner in 1867. The factory Vysoka Frantiska (Tall Frances), named after his wife, reached its greatest heights during his time. Wondruska wanted to meet the market demand and started to produce electrical insulator materials. After his death in 1907 the company went bankrupt. Slate was displaced by other materials in the electrotechnical industry and the World War I started. After the year 1918, things such as writing and smoking sets, paperweights, clocks and various promotional giveaways were manufactured with some by-products such as whetstones. The amount of waste material necessary for processing gramophone records increased. On May 8, 1940 the flames engulfed the factory and destroyed it completely. The extraction and processing of slate in Budisovice have never been restored. The only thing commemorating the famous Wondruska’s factory is an old stone transformer which is standing in the imaginary centre of the cottage settlement.
There is no doubt that the Church of St. Marketa, built in 1792, is a prominent landmark in Cermna ve Slezsku village (Cermna in Silesia). The current appearance of the church is the result of its reconstruction in 1855. Between 2008 and 2010 it underwent an extensive restoration including facade, clock tower and roofing repairs and fixing the foundation walls. The interior of the church is adorned with a picture of Virgin Mary and a series of paintings depicting fourteen Stations of the Cross. Both the church and the paintings were declared cultural monuments. In front of the church there is a cast-iron cross placed on a stone pedestal and a statue of John of Nepomuk (1853). In 2006, when the statue was being restored, a little case containing a set of historic coins was found inside it. The oldest of the coins is dated 1826. After the restoration of the discovery some currently used coins were added to the case and put back in its original place.
The first religious building in Radun was in the mid-14th century the church of St. Nicholas. Then Radun and Vrsovice were excluded of the manor of Hradec and belonged to near Komarov. The church used to stand to the north of the current cemetery and in 1541 it was documented that it was not used any more. The current church of the Most Holy Trinity has a layout of a cross and was built in Renaissance style in the place of the former chapel of St. Ann. The construction started in 1598, but due to plague epidemic the construction work was prolonged until 1603. The following years were not lucky for ‘the bastion of Catholicism’. During Thirty Years’ War the Danes devastated the Radun parish and it took nearly 200 years to repair it. The current appearance of the church was the work of new owners of the manor the Bluchers of Wahlstatt in the 19th century. In the second half of the 19th century thanks to their contribution the church was costly restored and the interior of the church got romantic Gothic Revival appearance. One of the last owners of the Radun castle Earl Lothar Blucher († 1929) (was buried in the church.
The original wooden church of St. Martin used to stand on the top of the hill in Pusta Polom and is mentioned in 1276. The village and the church then belonged to the Benedictine monastery in Hradisko near Olomouc. For many centuries it stood in the same place, even when the village became desolate. It became more important after Thirty Years’ War in the period of Earls of Vrbno and mainly when the village fell to the manor of Kyjovice. The villages of Hlubocec, Podvihov, Budisovice and Teskovice fell under the parish of Pusta Polom. Thus, within the 18th century it was decided that the church had to be widened and a new parsonage had to be built. In 1803 the church underwent the most major restoration. The church was refurbished under the influence of then modern French Empire style. In 1909 a high pyramid steeple was built, which has been in its place until now, even though it was badly damaged during World War II. In the church you can see an altar painting by Johann Gebhard of Brno of 1830 depicting a saint patron of all wanderers – St. Martin riding a horse as he shares his red coat with a begger.
Hurka Hill near Stemplovec is an ancient pilgrimage site, where even pagan ceremonies used to be held. A wooden chapel consecrated to St. John of Nepomuk was built on the hill in 1800. A legend tells it was built by an aristocrat, whose horse kicked a goblet out of the ground. Another legend reports about an aristocrat, who built the chapel to thank for his survival, when he nearly died under the hooves of his horse. The last legend tells about a lady, who was mugged in this place, but she was miraculously saved. Hurka Hill is of volcanic origin as many hills in the area. As an effect of heat and pressure 20 millions years before there were effusions of tertiary basalt, which were mined here in two quarries. The basalt was used mainly for construction of roads. The wooden chapel has to give way to mining. Since 1898 the brick chapel has stood in another place on the hill. The original quarries were gradually flooded. In the countryside you can still see the remains of long-ago mining.
Quarrying of the slate in the area of Jakartovice started at the beginning of the 19th century. In the mid-19th century 100 – 150 people were working here. In those times three producers of slate joined in one company. The producers were from Jakartovice, Bohdanovice and Svobodne Hermanice. There used to be a factory producing roof tiles called Eblum and Saulich. At the beginning of the 20th century mining and slate processing gradually declined and during World War I they definitely stopped. The former slate quarries in Jakartovice – now filled with water – are used as natural swimming pools and are popular resorts for relaxation. In the surroundings you can find the remains of miners’ houses, mounds and other mining items. In the galleries secured by a grille there is an ideal winter site for greater mouse-eared bats, which arrive here in late October. It is their valuable winter site in the region.
The village of Medlice used to spread out on the middle course of the Moravice River near Dvorce. It was first mentioned in 1141 as the property of the Olomouc Chapter. Before 1249 the bishop’s fief Ludvik of Medlice built here the Medlice castle. It was a important strategic fortress on the border with the Principality of Opava. Zdeslav of Sternberk got it as a fiefdom at the end of the 13th century. During the siege of Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus the castle was conquered and pulled down in 1474. The remains of the walls were used for the construction of the road between Olomouc and Opava. Medlice was connected with the manor of Sternberk. It was mainly an agricultural village. After 1945 native German inhabitants had to leave and the village was newly settled. In 1960 it was connected with Horni Kuncice and shortly after that the village was abandoned due to the construction of Kruzberk Dam. In the original village only three houses and an electrical substation have survived. The parish church of the Visitation of Virgin Mary was pulled down in 1985. In the forest you can find ruins of other buildings.
Kerhartice was first mentioned in 1397. It used to spread on the middle course of the Moravice River. In the place of an older little church of about the 16th century a new church consecrated to St. Martin was built in 1804. Native German inhabitants made their living from farming. In the village there were two mills, a distillery and a slate quarry. After 1945 new settlers came here, but in the 1950’s due to the construction of Kruzberk Dam they had to leave too. The village itself vanished in 1965. Out of all the former villages Kerhartice was nearest the dam surface; some of its buildings are under the water now. In the surrounding woods you can find many ruins of the original houses, a layout of a cemetery surrounding the vanished chapel of St. John the Baptist. The church of St. Martin was pulled down in 1985.
On a higher point over the village of Jezdovice, near the field path leading to Novy Dvur there is a sacral monument – a wayside shrine – of 1853. In the niches of the shrine there are saint pictures and by the shrine there is a simple bench. The wayside shrine symbolizes the column, near which Christ was whipped by the order of Pontius Pilate. Memorial trees are often planted near wayside shrines. Wayside shrines started to appear as early as in the 14th century. Since those times, although, many shrines have not survived. The most shrines were built in the period of Baroque and during the first Czechoslovak republic. After the process of collective farming in the 1950’s many of them disappeared from the landscape. Wayside shrines were often built at the crossroads, on the edge of lands or in an important place and therefore they are an important landmark in the countryside.
The colony of Rybnicky, also called Provazovec, was settled near the road to Hradec in 1806. The hamlet originally belonged to Kylesovice; after 1848 it was connected with Otice. Among local cultural monuments we can see the chapel of the Most Holy Trinity with a belfry and two crosses of 1908. Behind the hamlet of Rynicky, near the road between Opava and Hradec nad Moravici there is a seclusion called Macalka. In these places a guardhouse used to stand, where soldiers checks wanderers before they entered Opava.
The chapel of St. Jude the Appostle, which has been restored lately, stands near the road leading to Opava cemetery. It was built at the turn of the 19th century, although it has never been consecrated. Its saint patron is St. Jude the Apostle, who was one of the 12 Apostles. A legend tells that Jude Thaddeus and Apostle Simon the Zealot taught in Armenia and Persia, where they were martyred. He is usually depicted with a club or an axe or a halberd. He is often depicted wearing a long robe and holds a book or a scroll. The believers consider him a protector in hopeless cases. He is the saint patron in hardship and hopeless situations.
The original church of the Most Holy Trinity was first mentioned in 1588 and then in 1672. A hundred years later the building was in bad technical state and was too small for the parishioners. Therefore, a new church in baroque style with the same consecration was built in the place of the old one in 1776. In 1822 the roof and steeple were covered with slate and a bell cast in Olomouc was hung in the steeple in 1907. In spite of some minor modifications, it has survived in the same appearance. Among the original valuable inventory there is also the painting of St. Barbara by the Opavian artist Ignac Gunther.
Along the way between the hamlets of Zaluzne and Horni Zaluzne a slate mine was opened by Josef Nittman in the 1840’s. In this place the slate was mined in three storeys, which were mutually connected. The excavated material was transported to the ground by ingenious system of rails and platforms. The full carts with slate were taken out by a winch powered by horses and later by a steam machine. Nittman’s Mine stopped working shortly before World War I. The underground stream, which has its source inside Moraberg Hill, flows through the whole mine. For security reasons the funnel entrance pits are currently surrounded by banisters. In the surroundings there have been survived workers’ houses and administrative buildings as well as a huge wall supporting one of the mounds. Three former galleries are one of the most important winter sites for Barbastelle bats in the Czech Republic.
The chapel of St. Joseph was built in 1882 in the centre of Mladecko. The Gothic Revival altar and the statue of St. John of Nepomuk come from the beginning of the 19th century. In front of the chapel there is a cross of 1904, a memorial to the liberation of Mladecko of 1995 by the important sculptor Vincenc Havel, and another interesting sight is the cross in the cemetery of 1890. In the village there is only one immovable monument, which is the house no. 44. It is a log folk dwelling of East-Sudetic type, which was built in 1830 and which got an extension 70 years later. Several buildings of the original settlement and picturesque stone barns have survived. These buildings and barns are evidence that the roof slate from the near slate quarries in Jakartovice was plentifully used here.
Frantisek Dohnalek was born on 22nd February 1870 in Solnice near Rychnov nad Kneznou. He began to work as a general practitioner in Haj ve Slezsku in 1898, where he stayed for 40 years. He was a founder and the first chairman of “Sokol” group in Haj and co-organiser of a mass meeting on Ostra hurka in 1918. He played an important role in construction of the first resistance memorial on Ostra hurka. His biggest hobby was fruit growing. He founded successively and kept three large fruit gardens. After the Munich Pustch in 1938, he had to leave and return back to native Bohemia. He died in Podebrady in the same year. A voluminous book, The Fruit Tree and its Growing, that is still a reliable advisor for fruit tree growers, was published after his death. The former garden of Frantisek Dohnalek by his mansion, generally known as Dohnalek's park, belongs today among important park areas in the village. In 2010, the southern part of the garden was revitalised to allow larger public use.
You may find several interesting places in the vicinity of the Smolkov park. One of them, for instance, is the Silesian estate, which is one of the oldest farmsteads preserved in its original rustic style with a roof made of slate. The estate originates probably from the beginning of the 18th century and it was home of 5 generations of the Krizek family. Another object of interest situated only several meters further is the place where used to be the Smolkov Chapel of Virgin Mary. It was built in 1866 by Mr. and Mrs. Kolecek and it was destroyed at the end of the World War II. A bell tower, a memorial stone and a cross are standing in the place of the chapel today. The cross was standing next to the Smolkov school of 1891 and it was replaced in 2008.
The village of Smolkov is first mentioned in historical documents in 1377. Originally, it was a small fortress surveying Hrabyne goods. A small wooden fortress was probably standing here already before, but the first evidence of it comes from 1613, when it belonged to the family of Tvorkovsky. Besides the fortress, there were also a homestead and a mill in Smolkov. At the beginning of the 18th century, probably under the ownership of Lichnovsti of Vostice, the fortress was pulled down and a two-storey Baroque castle was built here. However, the next owners, the Mirtovsti of Nemysl, did not occupy it. Flats for employees of the local Austrian customs office were established there, because in Smolkov, there was the only bridge over the Opava river between the cities of Opava and Ostrava. From 1837 to 1925, the castle was owned by Teutonic Knights. Its cellars were used for ripening of Swiss cheeses. From 1859, it served also as a barn. From 1925, the castle is the property of the Ostrava association Ludmila that established an orphanage here. The building was damaged during liberation fights. That is why it has only one storey today. After reconstruction, it was used as a seniors’ home.
Beginnings of the water mill in Lhota may be traced already in Stitiny land register in 1460. In the course of centuries, it had changed owners many times and it was rebuilt several times. An important owner was the Havlicek family from 1894. In 1906, they had the old thatched mill and the sawmill demolished and they constructed a one-storey building of bricks. In 1913, Jan Havlicek replaced the mill wheel by a turbine and established electric lighting in the mill, as well as in other buildings. The mill got its current appearance after the World War II. The fate of the mill was sealed in April 1987 when it was engulfed by fire. Then, the mill served only as a mixing plant of feedstuff and it was decaying at the end of the 20th century. The mill found life with a new owner, a private company that is progressively renovating individual buildings and organises social and cultural events on the premises. In 2011, Museum of Slama, the Water Sprite was opened in the former screening room.
The original wooden church in Brezova was plundered by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years’ War. Moreover, the run-down building succumbed to fire in 1691, after stroke of lightning. Already in 1692 to 1694, however, a new brick church without tower was built. The tower was attached only in 1768. A coat of arms of the family of Pruskovsky of Proskov, owners of the Hradec manor and patrons of the church in Brezova, was hung above the entry into the church. In 1862-1864, the church was rebuilt in the today’s appearance. It underwent another renovation in the 1920s. At the end of the World War II, during liberation fights, German soldiers used the church tower as a watchtower. As soon as Russian soldiers learned it, they started to bombard the tower. The temple cupola fell down after stubborn fights and the church suffered many other gashes. According to estimations, the after-war renovation of the church cost 900 thousand Czech crowns. Other larger reconstructions and renovations took place at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. A memorial linden grows in front of the entry into the church. The large-leaved linden was planted about 280 years ago. It became the memorial tree in 1986. Its girth in the height of 130 cm is 510 cm.
According to historical documents, the water mill in Leskovec existed already in 1720. In the documents, it is mentioned as a flour mill and an oil mill for production of linseed oil commonly used for cooking at that time. It had several generations of various owners – the Sturma’s, Kolovrat’s, Wolf’s. In 1864, the mill became a property of the Cihlar family whose descendants still own it. They repaired the damaged building, as well as the interior, and they gave the mill the appearance, which is preserved, with little exaggeration, up to now. The millstone was driving this mill still in 1930. Later on, it was equipped with a turbine driven by a diesel engine and finally by electricity. The mill was nationalised after the war and wheat and rye flour was milled here until 1964. For the next seven years, compound feedstuff was mixed on the premises of the mill. An eloquent plate with the inscription “I am having a rest from 1964” informs us about the fact that the mill is out of service today. When the Cihlar family got the mill back in restitution after the Velvet Revolution, they reconstructed ravages of time and the mill looks like flour was to be milled at any time now.
In the altitude of 749 m a.s.l., on the top of the Cervena hora (the Red Mountain), there is the most isolated meteorological station in the Czech Republic. It was built in 1952. Initially, it was used by the Army because of the vicinity of the military domain Libavá. But already during the World War II, there was an iron guidance tower of the German Luftwaffe situated on this place. It stayed here until the mid-1990s. The Cervena station performs continuous observation and measuring from 1970. They show that the average annual temperature on this place is about 5.5 °C, average precipitations are 750 mm, the highest day temperature of 32.6 °C was measured in July 1994 and the lowest day temperature of -34.4 °C was measured in February 1956. Due to its specific location in the middle of forests and far from civilisation, it was possible to perform such specific measurements and observations as observation of flying fireballs, counting of lightnings, monitoring of seismic activity or weighing of frost deposits.
St. Peter and Paul’s Church was built between 1587 and 1594 thanks to the incentive of the eager Catholic Kaspar Pruskovsky of Pruskov, who acquired Hradec manor shortly before the church construction. The church was consecrated in 1597. The church tower reaches the height of 37 metres and there are three bells inside. Two of them belong to the oldest bells in Opava region. The bell ‘Paul’ weighs 952 kg and the bell ‘Paul’ weighs 560 kg. The first church organ was made and set working in 1770 by organ master Schwarz of Libava and in 1846 Ferenc Liszt played the organ during the Ordination Mass of Duke Robert Lichnovsky.
The current organ was made in 1911 and was the work of the famous company ‘Rieger and Sons’ of Krnov. When you enter the church vestibule, on the left side you can see a stone epitaph depicting the fouder of the church. Behind his back there is a relief of 1603 depicting the first known view of Hradec.
Near the road on the way to Lichnov there is a romantic St. Ann’s Chapel under high-grown trees. Current wall chapel of 1926 stands in the place of original wooden one. Next to the chapel so called St. Ann’s Spring rises from the depth of about 50 metres. One legend tells about a miraculous recovery of a blind boy from Horni Benesov after he had prayed and washed his eyes with the water from the spring. The chapel is adorned with a painting of miraculous motives, which was donated by local farmers.
In the deep valley of the Melc Brook, near the former lord’s court there is a pilgrimage site called Maria Talhof. At the turn of the 18th and 19th century a small chapel consecrated to St. Mary the Virgin was built here to thank for a miraculous recovery of a little girl. According to another legend, there used to be a lot of violets in bloom around here and their intoxicating smell healed ill people. Mary the Virgin revealed herself to a local forester and begged him to built a cross here in the valley. The site was then spontaneously visited by pilgrims. Nowadays you can see a chapel after reconstruction of 1926, which was repaired in 1996; a wooden cross and the Lourde’s Grotto made from stone. Behind the chapel there is a spring rising, which is drained into a pipe.
If you look at a conciliation cross, you can see a story behind; a story full of violation and pain as well as atonement and reconciliation. These stone artefacts usually stand in a place where capital offense was committed. In the Middle Ages the offender - according to so-called conciliation law - could atone for his or her crime by acts such as carving and raising a conciliation cross. In this case, it is a one meter high, sandstone cross, which reminds of violent death of pharmacist Kratina from Opava. Wearing a costume he set off for Budisov to visit the mayor, who owed him some money. Although the expedition was successful, Kratina was unfortunately killed by an unknown murderer in the woods between Melc and Litultovice. On the right side of the cross head and bar there are five hardly perceptible dimples, which are said to be magic. There is a stone stele of 1699 near the cross.
Under the vaulted castle ceilings, in the place that used to be the distillery caretaker’s flat you can find The Museum of Litultovice History which is situated in three rooms. This exposition was established on the occassion of townlet status being returned to Litultovice in 2007. Litultovice representatives addressed citizens then and asked them to collect suitable objects, photographs and documents which refer to a long-ago way of life in the village. In the museum you can learn something interesting on the history of the townlet and its municipal parts; there are historical photographs of the castle and its aristocracy; you can have a closer look at eventful club life which reminds us of the times when Litultovice had an amateur theatre group, ice-hockey team or ‘Sokol’ organization group. One part of the exposition shows important people for Litultovice and the school history. In another room all craft guilds are introduced as well as tools and instruments relating to agriculture are displayed. Apart for the above mentioned you can see historical furniture or a unique wooden pram.
St. Barholomew’s Church in Litultovice was first mentioned in 1767. Eighty years later a baroque rectory church was built in the place of the first church and it was sanctified in 1849. It was rebuilt into the contemporary look in 1925. Its patron is Saint Bartholomew, who was one of the Twelve Apostoles of Jesus. According to one account, he liberated the Armenian king’s daughter from obsession with an evil spirit. After this miracle, the king and his court as well as twelve towns converted to Christianity. He was then flayed alive and crucified, head downward. Saint Bartholomew is a patron of many towns and crafts – especially leather manufacturers, tanners, fur hunters, shoemakers, taylors, bookbinders as well as shepherds or farmers and many others.
St. Saviour’s Pilgrim Chapel was built in 1769. The owner of Zivotice manor Baron Karel Orlik of Lazisko had it built in the place of an Countier chapel, which was fabled with tales of miracles. He built it to thank for his recovery from a serious disease. The chapel became an important pilgrimage stop. The alley of high-grown chestnut and lime trees intensifies the beauty of the chapel and the fact that it is part of the landscape.
This conciliation cross, which is evidence of medieval conciliation law, used to stand in fields, but Count Camillo Razumovsky contributed to its transport near the bridge over the Hvozdnice River on the road leading to Stablovice. Stone crosses usually stood in the place where capital offence was committed or an accident happened. In this case a miller cut down the lord’s fir-tree, which was said to spread the evil. The Lord of Stablovice forced the miller to make and settle a conciliation cross to atone for what he had done. The conciliation cross was renovated by academic sculptor Tomas Skalik in 2009.
St. Saviour’s Church is an important architectural landmark and at the same time the most precious cultural sight in the village, although it belongs to the latest sights in Opava region. The consecration of the church in 1908 was the culmination of Dolni Zivotice inhabitants’ effort to become independent of Litultovice parish. The combination of various architectural styles – Roman, Gothic as well as Baroque – makes it look frisky, pleasant, but also sumptuous and ancient and it reminds us of historical tradition of the Razumovsky dynasty. Counts Camillo and Marie Razumovsky actively contributed to the construction of the parish church as they planned to establish a dynasty residence in the village and a family tomb in the church. The architectural value and fairy-tale atmosphere of this meaningful sight exceeds the borders of the region.
St. Florian’s Chapel in Mikolajice was built in 1889. The wooden altar with the sculpture of Our Lady of Lourdes and with a big picture of St. Florian comes from the same period. The relief of the Lord’s Supper curved in wood was proclaimed as a part of cultural heritage. The patron of the chapel – St. Florian – is considered a protector of jobs connected with fire such as firefighters, steelworkers, chimneysweepers, potters and bakers. It is usually depicted in the clothes of Roman soldier with a jug full of water to fight the fire or he is fighting the fire in the pictures. Little sculptures of St. Florian were put into a gable niche of village houses to protect them against fire.
The newly renovated wayside shrine on the border of land between Mikolajice and Melc comes from the 19th century. It is a tiny construction in the shape of a column and pillar. They symbolize the column near which Jesus Christ was whipped on the order of Pontius Pilat. Wayside shrines are usually found on the hills, crossings or the places where somebody had died. Memorable trees are often planted nearby. This wayside shrine has been protected as historical heritage since 1990. In the region of Opava it is a unique monument of small-size sacral architecture.
Renaissance Church of Virgin Mary’s Birth in Radkov was built in 1589 in the place of the Countier wooden church, which burnt down. The church has gone through many construction modifications. In the second half of the 18th century the church was extended by its rear part as there was not enough space for all parishioners. The side entrance and tower were added as late as in 1861. During the partial interior reconstruction in 2006 wall paintings in the older part of the church and renaissance brick floor were uncovered. In the cemetery near the church there are – apart from others – the bodies of former owners of the Hornovikstejn manor, e.g. the Skrbenskys or the Arz-Vasseggs. Among the 19th century gravestones we can also find the grave of the last holders of the manor, the Razumovskys. Seven members of this noble dynasty were buried here.
Baroque parish Our Lady’s Birth Church can be marked as the most valuable building in Jakartovice. Countier there was a wall little church with a wooden tower. Monastery of Velehrad had a new church consecrated to Our Lady’s Birth. According to the chronograph, which is behind the altar, the foundation stone was laid in 1755. In the centre of the main altar there is a picture of Our Lady’s Birth of probably the 19th century; statues of Saint Thecla and Barbara on the sides are original. The statue of St. John Nepomuk, which is in front of the church, was made in 1725 and was built here on request of Velke Heraltice priest Ignaz Kallerth, who was a son of a hereditary reeve of Jakartovice.
The Most Holy Trinity Church stands in the place of an Countier wooden church and was consecrated in 1776. Out of its rich inventory, alabaster statues of St. John Nepomuk and St. John the Baptist are noteworthy. Two historic bells of 1494 are suspended in the church tower. Regarding their historic value the bells were not seized for military use. Above the main altar there is a painting of the Most Holy Trinity, which was donated by farmer Josef Salibor in 1878. The parish, which stands near the church, was built in 1816. In its garden there is a statue of Saint Hedwig, sacred patron of Silesia. A white stone, which is believed to bring fecundity, protrudes from its pedestal.
The chapel consecrated to Virgin Mary the Helper called Kaplice was built by the owner of Hlavnice castle and yard, Vilem Cejka of Badenfeld, in 1841. It was built as a single-nave chapel in pseudo-gothic style. The altar is situated opposite the front door. ‘Kaplice’ was an inseparable part of Hlavnice manor, so it passed to its new owners. In 1886 Robert Bayer of Bayersburg became the owner of Kaplice, the castle and yard. In 1927 his son Frantisek added to the chapel from the western side another nave with a cellar, which served as a family tomb. Probably during the completion of Kaplice in 1927 a stone cross was built in front of the entrance. After World War II the chapel was falling into disrepair for decades and it was exposed to thieves’ raids. In 1994 it was restored and newly consecrated. Last changes were so far made in 2005.
Church of St. Anthony of Padua, which was built at the end of the 19th century, is an indisputable main feature of Melc. It is one of the first constructions of Josef Maria Olbrich, who was born in Opava and was a significant architect of Vienna Secession. The church is connected with an interesting story about Count Kamillo Razumovsky. Once he was sailing on very rough sea near Italian town called Padua where St. Anthony of Padua was buried. He was in danger and promised that if he was rescued, he would build a church which would look like a boat board. The church was consecrated in 1890 and in 1988 was declared to be national culture heritage. Near the church there is a parish of 1909.
In this place there used to be the most modern slate mine in Zaluzna. Co-owners Franz Gebauer and Augustin Mar started mining here in 1884. A year later the mine was flooded with underground water. Gebauer survived with serious injuries and he was not interested in mining any more. However, Mar – a miller – tried to find out for many years how to draw the water off and resume mining. During one of his attempts he fell into the shaft and before he could be drawn out, he drowned. Shortly after him the other owner of the mine, Gebauer, died too. His descendants decided to build a chapel commemorating the victims of mine disasters. In 1897 the chapel made almost exclusively from slate was built and consecrated to Infant Jesus of Prague. Since 2009 it has been an immovable cultural monument.
Pilgrim Chaple of 14 Holy Helpers stands at the top of Niklsberg hill between Stare Techanovice and a hamlet called Zaluzne. Worshippers gathered around the chapel as early as in the 17th century, but after the reforms of Josef II. the tradition of pilgrimage was interrupted. A disastrous storm in 1829 destroyed St. Nicholas’s Church in Stare Techanovice and many more buildings. A year after this event the pilgrims from the surrounding villages set off again to beg for good weather, harvest and better life conditions. The renewed tradition lasted until the end of World War II. In the 1970’s and 1980’s the chapel was falling into disrepair. The reconstruction came in last moment in 2008 and got Josef Maria Olbrich Award from the city of Opava. The tradition of pilgrimage was renewed after 67 years in 2012.
Church of St. James the Greater used to stand in Guntramovice in mid-15th century and it was wooden. In 1736 a stone church in baroque style was built in the place of the original building. The roof was covered with shingle and the church was surrounded with a thick wall where was an entrance gate. In 1758 during the battle between Austrian and Prussian armies the whole Guntramovice burnt down and in the artillery fire the new church was demolished and burnt down. All four bells, the newest of which was cast in 1636, melted on fire. In 1759 the church was built and consecrated again. They kept repairing the church in 1795 and 1814 – 1818. The last changes to the church were made in the 1980’s. In the area of the church there is a cemetery, which is still used for burials.
Gothic Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul comes from the first half of the 14th century. It is unknown when the sacristy was added. When the church was reconstructed at the end of the 18th century, the chancel was fixed and the belfry was lifted. In the belfry a bell dated 1766 was hung. In the church there is a functional organ, which is believed to be the oldest in Silesia. According to one legend, there used to be a secret passageway from the church to Hradisko hill where a little castle of marauding knights used to stand. The church is a culture monument under state protection and belongs to the oldest churches in Silesia. In the church there is a stylish Gallery on the Loft where are organized various exhibitions and concerts. There are also occasional masses in the church.
On the top of Hradisko hill there are stone foundations for a wooden view tower. They were probably built before World War I by one of the mountain society. You can find remains of rather small guarding castle Kreutzburg in the terrain between the old view tower and viewing platform. The castle was not mentioned in writing but when Jindrich Kosir, the burgrave of Vildstejn, at the beginning of the 15th century, he was the only nobleman who had ever used the name ‘of Kreutzburg’. Thus we can assume that he might have been based in the castle. The castle was probably destroyed during Hussite Wars. What survived is the central part, which is separated from sharply ascending terrain with a ditch dug into the rock; and shorter part of the stone wall. According to one legend, the castle was connected with the Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul through a secret passageway.
In Lublice there used to stand a chapel consecrated to St. Florian. In 1784 a parish, which served to the village of Kruzberk as well, was founded near the chapel. A church, which was also consecrated to St. Florian, was built in the place of the old chapel between 1810 and 1811. The interesting point is that the original chapel was composed into the new church and is consecrated to St. Anna. Rococo furnishings of the chapel were used for decorations in the new church. In the prism-shaped tower there is a bell of probably the second half of the 15th century. On the bell there is a relief with Christ on the cross. Another bell with reliefs of Christ on the cross and Madonna is of 1636. The new clock measures time for Kruzberk people.
Vildstejn Castle was first mentioned in 1316. It consisted of two independent parts and was enclosed with an over-300-meter-long moat. It was owned by members of Olomouc Chapter Detrich and Jindrich (Henry) of Fulstejn then. It is believed to have been destroyed and burnt at the end of 14th century during the wars between Mangraves Jost and Prokop. On the ground you can still see the rests of the castle walls, parts of foundation walls, a part of the former tower, embankment and a vast moat. One of the tales says that a great treasure lies somewhere under the castle. The entrances to underground are said to be open on Holy Saturday at the same time when the bells of Budisov church are ringing Gloria. If you are the one who is as lucky as to get to the underground opening, you can take as much gold and silver as you can carry. You must bear in mind, though, you have to get back in time as the entrances are closed with the last tone of the bells. If you aren’t able to leave the underground, you have to stay there until next Holy Saturday.
The construction of Budisov church started with foundation stone laying in 1745. The demanding construction was completed in 1755 and was realized under the particular supervision and with financial support of Cardinal Ferdinand Julius, Count of Troyer. On 12 April 1756 the church was consecrated as Assumption of Blessed Virgin Maria. The towers were only temporarily roofed due to financial lack. Thanks to citizens’ donations they were completed to current state as late as in 1912. It is said that during the construction in 18th century there was a wooden board path leading over the houses from the square to the church and every evening weavers transported as many bricks as necessary for all day work. As a sign of appreciation this guild was given the right to use the choir loft. This right was later revoked due to ‘mischief-making’. There is a rectory near this House of God.
In this picturesque holiday area you have the possibility of angling, but you can jog, too, ride a bike, pick up the wood berries and in the winter
you can skate.
The Hlučín-Darkovičky Czechoslovak Fortification Complex is a unique artefact of its type, and of immense value in a European context. The Fortification Complex is an exhibition of military technology that gives visitor the opportunity to find out about a major aspect of the history of the first half of the 20th century.
The Czechoslovak Fortification Complex in Hlučín-Darkovičky has been part of the Silesian Museum since 1992. It forms one of the museum’s six exhibition premises, with a close thematic link to the national Second World War Memorial in nearby Hrabyně.
In the context of the Silesian Museum, the Fortification Complex is specific in that, while it is located in the countryside, its thematic focus is relatively unconventional within its category. It includes a group of structures that were created as part of the Czechoslovak border defence system, and which are amongst the most interesting in the Czech Republic and the best-preserved in Europe. The Complex consists of five structures, both one-side and two-sided, of various types and durability grades. Experts are therefore able to present the battlefield and individual structures, both in the condition and with the fitting as they were in 1938, as well as the condition they were in at the end of the war.
The complex is also symbolic of key events in Czechoslovak history, being, as it is, closely linked to the Munich Agreement and loss of the Sudetenland, and therefore one of the most dramatic moments in the history of Silesia.
In the early 2nd half of the 13th century started a construction of a stone-built castle Landek, founded probably by the Czech king Premyslide Otokar II. This stone fortress should have provided for protection of border to the Opole principality, as incursion of Tatars rushed past there in 1241. These days only a short stretch of stonework at the east part of the core is preserved. The castle Landek was tetragonal and there were towers (bastions) on all its corners. It is likely to have been built of sonework. It was surrounded by deep moats from three sides and from the fourth side it sloped steeply down to the river Odra. There was built up an access road with an entrance gate in direction to Koblov, of which two strong stony piers remained preserved till now. The mediaeval town Hulsthyn (nowadays Hlučín) was a market centre of Landek. The fortress quite often changed its owners. In 1473 the representatives of the Hungarian king Matyas Korvín and of the king Wladislaw II. Jagello had talks here. A Bohemian-Hungarian war is getting to break out in the course of which the castle got captured and pulled down by Matyas Korvin and it will never be renovated and will become a mere ruin. In 1772 baron Adam Jan Gruttschreiber bought the whole dominion and opened a coal mining in the surroundings of Landek. A substantial change came in 1742, when Landek, its surroundings as well as the town Hlučín fell, on the base of the Wratislaw peace, to Prussia and they were given back to Bohemian lands as late as 1920. Those days the castle had not yet administrative or military significance. In 17th century it was used as a hideout for bands of robbers. The remains of stones were taken away by inhabitants for building purposes, especially as fundamental masonry. It is interesting that the chronicle of Ludgeřovice mentions a predatory knight attacking merchants´carts. The knight called Schlick, caused that all of the cattle had to be taken away from landed estate yards to the Square of Hlučín and the burghers had to defend the town including the castle. The knight of Landek was not satisfied only by robberies, he was falling together with his fellows on various funfair and celebration actions. At the same time he dragged the most beautiful girls to Landek. The citizens didn´t like it and tey began to complain. After lots of complaints had been lodged troops of Opava was sent against him. However the knight managed to escape. Both the castle and the Slavic settlement are localized on the cadastre of the village Koblov, but the archeological findings belong to the cadastre of the village Petřkovice.
The lookout tower is situated on the hill Landek not far away from the confluence of the rivers Odra and Ostravice in the village Petřkovice (part of Ostrava). It is the locality of a significant archeological area declared a National natural monument. The lookout tower stands in the height of 280 m. above sea level and was built in 1998. In fact it is a simple wooden timber tower in total height of 7 meters. There are two floors, higher of which is 5 meters high and is covered with a small roof. It is accessible on the ladder consisting of 16 rungs. You are offered a nice view of the town Ostrava and at a good visibility also of the north slopes of the Beskydes. A nature trail goes to the lookout tower giving the visitors information on the history of the settlement of this site. You can get there also from the area of the Miner´s museum OKD. The tower is free to access and it is from one side shaded with trees. In the Miner´s museum the collectors can get a tourist stamp of the lookout tower.
It was a part of a fortifi cation from the 30th years of the 20th century.
The Silesia Golf Resort Kravaře is carefully incorporated into an English park around a Baroque château and the unique atmosphere of this golf course is emphasized with primeval trees and a lot of water streams. This new golf course with 18 holes was built in the local château park and it is here not only for professional players, but for everybody who wants to try this attractive sport.
Since 2004 it has been able to visit in Bělá Healing Spring based on Priessnitz’s method. Several pools are located in a very nice surroundings with woods. the bigger pool is used for having a bath of legs, the smaller for arms.
The blue cycle path no. 34 leads through picturesque hilly terrain of the Glubczyce district. It passes through the villages of Wiechowice, Branice, Lewice, Pietrowice Głubczyckie, Opawica, Równe, Głubczyce, Pomorzowiczki and Głogówek, which represents a path of about 90 km in a heterogeneous terrain. All the lovers of bicycle touring will appreciate it. The path begins in Wiechowice and finishes in Glogowek in the Prudnik district. It passes first through slightly undulating rural landscape that is not difficult. Then it changes progressively into more attractive hilly terrains with beautiful views. There are many places of interest in the villages on the path. These are mostly religious buildings, natural monuments, historical buildings, and others. The path offers also entertainment attractions like a natural swimming pool in Pietrowice Glubczyckie or many reputed restaurants, pubs and coffee houses in nearby Glubczyce.
The Infantry log cabin MO-S-37 U cukrovaru in Haj ve Slezsku is a part of concrete fortification line built to protect the Republic before the World War II. Its construction was finished in December 1936. It is the last building of the line of the so-called Moravian Ostrava Section; further to the west the buildings of the Opava Section were to follow. The cabin with a revolving machine gun tower planned for this site was intended to protect an important access road and a bridge across the Opava River in the direction from Dolni Benesov, the river banks and the area between the river and buildings of the near artillery fortress Smolkov. However, an armoured artillery tower for a pair of heavy machine guns model 37 was not delivered to the building till September 1938. During the occupation armoured bells as well as embrasures were torn up. By the end of the war, in spring 1945, the holes for the main weapons were quickly concreted and mounted with German weapons for defence against the advancing Red Army. The building was severely damaged. At present enthusiasts from the Military History Club Haj ve Slezsku look after the building. It is locked and not freely accessible.
Accessibility: By car, on foot, by bicycle..
The Artillery Fortress Smolkov was a part of a line of mutually supportive heavy concrete buildings which were protecting the important industrial area and transport junction of Ostrava region. This defensive line was built as a response to the military threat from Nazi Germany in the mid 1930s. The task of the constructed protective fortification was to compensate armament and numerical superiority of the German army and repulse or at least hold up a possible attack of the enemy. In the hill above the Smolkov village one of the five artillery fortresses finished in Czechoslovakia was built between 1936 and 1938. Extensive complex of fortification buildings consists of five separated buildings which are connected through underground corridors. The construction was finalized in October 1938 and most of the interior equipment was installed there. The fortress was supposed to have a garrison of 394 men who were expected to resist attacks up to several months in the underground. The underground premises of the buildings are currently used by the Army of the Czech Republic. The surface of the individual buildings is, with the exception of the entrance building, freely accessible. There is a green marked hiking trail running near the buildings.
The Infantry log cabin MO-40 "Nad silnici" is a part of the artillery fortress Smolkov. The cabin was intended to have two tactical tasks – to protect nearby surroundings of the fortress, particularly the artillery log cabin, and at the same time to provide the artillerists with the observation. An artillery bell of observation with a periscope telescope had most of its visors oriented westwards as the priority task of the watcher in this bell was to regulate fire of the casemate battery of the artillery cabin in the direction of Opava. Armoured cupolas of the infantry cabin, armed with two heavy machine guns model 37 and one light machine gun model 26, were capable of bombarding the western hillside of the Padarov hill and the access road under the hill. As for its construction, it resembled isolated infantry cabins in the line. Besides, it was mounted with a special cast steel ventilation cupola in the ceiling which ensured intake of fresh air. Front walls of the cabin which did not have embrasures were equipped with four-meter wide quarry stone lining which absorbed the impacts of artillery grenades and helped mask the object. To build S 40 2,705 m3 of concrete were used.
The object is accessible from the outside with no limitation. The underground is off limits to the public.
The Artillery log cabin MO-39 U trigonometru was the biggest building of the artillery fortress Smolkov. Having the cubage of 5,500 m3 of concrete it is the fourth biggest building of the Czechoslovak fortification. 50 meters in length and 16 meters in width, the cabin was supposed to cover isolated infantry cabins of the fortification line up to Opava by firing from three casemate howitzers of 10 cm calibre model 38. However, they didn´t manage to provide the artillery arms to the cabin. In September 1938 a battery of 7.5 cm mountain cannons in wooden sheds was provisionally placed in front of the cabin as a poor substitute of the fortress artillery, planned for the cabin. Nearby protection of the building was secured by two armoured bells with heavy machine guns and one light machine gun placed under the concrete. During the war the building suffered severe damage due to German bombarding attempts and particularly due to tearing up the embrasures. The emergency exit placed at the very corner of the diamond ditch, having a size of a normal entry to an infantry cabin, is considered a rarity. It is likely that raids of the infantry or ascent of the sappers to the premises of the fortress were expected to happen.The object is accessible from the outside with no limitation. The underground is off limits to the public. When moving on the ceiling joist of the building increased caution is required. Danger of injury.
The Artillery revolving and telescopic tower, called „MO-38 V lese“, was the most efficient and most sophisticated weapon system of the artillery fortress Smolkov as well as of the Czechoslovak fortifications as a whole. The fortification building does not have its own entry. The access was only from the underground. At the surface, the armoured revolving tower was to be mounted with a pair of quick-firing howitzers of 10 cm calibre which were capable of providing fire support to defensive line within wide circular range from Opava up to Markvartovice. The weight of the steel tower itself was projected to be 440 tonnes. In case of hostile bombarding almost the whole tower could slide in the concrete and spaced armour which reduced its vulnerability. To construct the building, 2,826 m3 of fortification concrete was mixed. Steel components of the tower, intended to be concreted into the building, were supplied to the construction site in March 1938, however, the tower itself was not successfully finished and delivered till the end of September 1938. A deep elevator shaft under the cannon tower is today equipped with a non-original superstructure with vents. At the surface of the building original cast steel ventilation bells remained.
The object is accessible from the outside with no limitation. The underground is off limits to the public.
The Entrance building MO-41 Nad valchou is the main entry, or rather the main drive, into the underground of the artillery fortress Smolkov. It is situated on the reverse side of the hill facing the inland; thus it was better protected against direct hostile firing. According to its cubage of 4,715 m3 of concrete it is the second biggest building in the fortress. Only the front part with the drive to the underground, the entry for the garrison, embrasures and two armoured bells are visible. Defence of the entrance building was ensured by two light machine guns model 26 in the cupolas and two 4.7 cm calibre casemate cannons model 36 under the concrete which protected the immediate vicinity of the entrance and controlled the access communication Haj - Hrabyne. All the rest is hidden in the underground. The entry to the interior of the fortress was secured by four-meter wide lattice gate, then by a telescopic armoured gate and another gas-tight gate. Behind the gates there is space for two trucks where the ammunition and provisions were reloaded to handling narrow-gauge cars and delivered into the underground warehouses. Fresh air for the central filtration room securing the ventilation of the depths of the whole fortress was also taken in here.
The building is still in service of the Army of the Czech Republic and, like the underground of the fortress, is off limits to the public.
The Fortress artillery observation post MO-42 Nad Hajem secured observation of the forefront and regulation the fire of artillery guns of the fortress Smolkov. An observer in a special bell had an artillery periscope telescope 70 kg by weight at his disposal which was lifted through the gap in the spherical cap. The optical system, first-rate at that time, enabled the observer to search targets and regulate the fire of the fortress cannons from Hlucin to Opava. To observe the vicinity of the building there were three visors in the walls of the bell; to protect the vicinity it was possible to put in a light machine gun to observation inserts. The observation post was primarily defended by the fire from the neighbouring buildings, besides, there was a six-embrasure bell with another light machine gun mounted on the ceiling joist. The observation post did not have any embrasures for guns under the concrete, thus had no diamond ditches. The entrance to the building with a cubage of 1,715 m3 of concrete was possible only through the underground corridor from the fortress. Therefore it blended in with the terrain and it was hardly detectable from a longer distance. Both bells were torn up during the war. The place where the observation bell was mounted is now occupied by a walled shed of unknown origin and purpose.
The object is accessible from the outside with no limitation. The underground is off limits to the public.
The history of the mill in Stare Techanovice, today called David´s Mill, can be traced back to the first half of the 17th century. The mill was always a property of the owners of the manor and was called either after a village it belonged to – Starotechanovicky Mill, or after miller families it was entrusted to. So it was called Obitz´s, Tschirmer´s, Tüchert´s or Franzel´s. In 1886 the mill devolved to the Franzel´s family. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century Anton Franzel reconstructed the production building of the mill, modernised milling technology and changed over from direct drive of the milling set by water wheel to the electric motor drive. He had Francis turbine installed in the building which, after being completely reconstructed, is in still in operation. The electricity produced there did not serve only for the mill to be driven, but it was also supplied to parts of Stare Techanovice and Kruzberk villages. Since the beginning of the World War I the mill was a cooperative mill for nearly a century, so until recently its name was the Cooperative Mill. Today the area of David´s Mill with three breeding ponds and reconstructed buildings is used as a recreational facility.
On the area of 57 ha, between Lesni Albrechtice and Zimrovice villages, there is a National Natural Preserve Kaluza. Large vegetation of natural floriferous beech woods and talus and ravine forests in the natural environment of the river Moravice are protected there. The preserve includes a diverse range of forest types, however, rich beech woods globally prevail. The tree layer consists primarily of European beech, on the stony hillsides there are Norway and Sycamores Maples, European Hornbeams, Penduculate Oaks and Small-leaved Limes; Silver Birches in poorer soils. From rarer plants let´s mention Drooping Bitter Cress or Turk´s Cap Lily. Beetles developmentally linked to dead old deciduous tree trunks, especially beeches, are distinctive insect species e.g. Lesser Stag Beetle, Rose Beetle, Bee Beetles, Ant Beetles or Cardinal Beetles. On the meadows at the Moravice River endangered species Scarce large blue and Purple-Shot Copper were spotted.
The topmost point of Otice is Kamenna hora (Kamenna Mountain) (311 m.a.s.l.), which belongs to the lower chain of the foothills of the Nizky Jesenik Mountains. On its slopes there is a nature heritage Oticka sopka (Otice volcano), which was established in 1991 and stretches on the area of 10 ha. Its name tells that it is an object of volcanic origin. Local basalt rock is significantly older than the one in volcanoes around Bruntal. It is estimated to be about 20 million years old. The crater on its surface is the result of quarrying in the first half of the 20th century. The quarry was in operation from 1890 until 1949, when the mining was gradually strangled. Kamenna hora (Kamenna Mountain) is connected with a lot of local folk legends. One of them tells that a devil printed his hoof into one boulder at the peak of the mountain. At the beginning of the 20th century local people still called Kamenna hora ‘Peklo’ (the Hell).
The spur, where the ruins of Vikstejn castle of the first half of the 13th century stands, is an interesting nature and historical area. It lies in the central part of the Nature park ‘Moravice’. What is particularly interesting is the meander of the Moravice River in Ann’s Valley. From Ann’s Valley to the castle there is a 1200-metre-long educational trail. Along the trail we can see characteristic woody plants such as the European beech, Common hornbeam and English elm. If you are lucky enough, you can see Lacanus servus, Fire salamander, Red squirrel, European pine marten or European roe deer. Among the birds there is the Common buzzard, Red-breasted flycatcher, Eurasian Eagle-Owl, Eurasina Nuthatch, Common raven, Great Spotted Woodpecker, Hawfinch or Eurasian magpie. Along the trail there are information boards where you can find information about the nature park as well as the. Accessibility: recommended time is only summer; you can only walk here
The Educational trail ‘Hvozdnice’ leads through the nature preserve ‘Hvozdnice’. It was named after the stream, which flows in the unregulated riverbed past Slavkov ponds in the area of Dolni Zivotice and Otice. The last remains of Riparian forest in the region of Opava survived here. You can still see riverbed processes of the watercourse. The Riperian forest is the most beautiful in spring, when you can see thousands of white anemones, Isopyrum thalictroides and many more spring herbs. You can hear thrushes, blackbirds, warblers, flycatchers or orioles singing to mark their territory. There is enough nourishment for the Common kingfisher, which make their nest in the walls of the meander. Researchers proved the existence of the Pool frog, European tree frog, Great Crested newt, Smooth newt, crossbreed of the European Fire-bellied toad and Yellow-bellied toad. Among characteristic woody plants of Riparian forest there is the hackberry, linden, European oak, Sessile oak, elm, hornbeam, maple, poplar, willow or ash.
The linden alley in Stemplovec begins near the western castle gate and leads towards the chapel of St. John of Nepomuk on Hurka Hill. It consists of linden trees, some of which belong to the oldest and the most massive in the region of Opava. Their esthetic and landscape value is significant. As for the protection of the alley, it is important to maintain it as long as possible and leave it like this until the trees die out. The hollows and decaying wood is the home for many rare animal species – birds and insects. Another important tree in the area – the linden tree in Holasovice – can be found at the turn from the village of Zadky to Stemplovec. The original linden planted by the wayside shrine was already only a torso, so a new linden was planted in the same place.
The local deposit of the choppable slate was quarried before 1950. Thanks to the geologic exploration, it was made accessible again in the years of 1991 and 1992 through the gallery ‘Hermina’. The planned project was to dig 840 metres of corridors, but the work was stopped when 413 metres had been done. The interesting fact is that 6410 tons of gangue was mined. The gangue was used for filling and remediation of the deposit depression in Horni Benesov. The depth of the gallery under the ground is 28 metres. The mine underground was emptied and surface machinery dismantled. The mine is currently secured with a steel grille.
There have been many important people in the village over the years. Frantisek Zika was an important agricultural economist and the chairman of Agrarian Party in Silesia. Josef Sramek worked as a lawyer and politician. Josef Vasica was a respected university professor and a lecturer in Czech studies. Arnost Lamprecht was a well-known linguist and professor of Czech language. General Heliodor Pika was a politician and important representative of the foreign anti-Nazi resistance movement. He was executed on the basis of a trumped-up charge. Ludmila Horka was a writer and ethnographic worker. Her most famous work ‘Bejatka’ follows Bozena Nemcova’s ‘Babicka’ through the ability to find poetry, love and the good in the life of the poor. The life of both writers could be seen as very similar as well.
The earlier Gothic building – a water fortress – was built at the end of the 13th century by Vikart of Polom. The thick stone wall, which was nearly 1 metre high, served mainly for protection. In the 14th century the fortress was a part of the homestead. In those times it got a folk name ‘Miloticka’ as a reminder of the unsuccessful siege of the fortress by Lord of Milotice. Later in 1573 the fortress was rebuilt in Renaissance style and resembled a castle more. Another milestone in the use of the fortress was the year of 1805, when it was converted into a granary and flats for the people working in the homestead. After 1948 it was used for a state farm and it quickly fell into disrepair.
Distilling industry has had a long-standing tradition in Velka Polom. At the beginning there was brewing – first mentioned in 1500. Manorial or Earls’ or Wilczeks’ brewery was a part of the courtyard and was connected with the water fortress. One brewmaster, a real specialist, Jindrich Scholz became a legend in brewing. His brother Hugo built a new competitor brewery called Scholzuv (Scholz’s) as a result of mutual misunderstanding. Shortly after that the brewery in the homestead ceased to exist. Later the brewery was bought by farmers and they converted it into a distillery, which is still in operation. Apart from the distillery, there is also a liqueur company and a grower distillery.
Kruzberk Dam on the Moravice River was the first valley dam in the Odra River basin. It was built between 1948 and 1955. Originally, it was supposed to supply industrial works in Ostrava with water, but in the end it serves as a source of drinking water. The trail of the water inlet is 40 km long and in the first part it passes a 13-km-long tunnel in the Odra Highland. The length of the dam in the crown is 280 m and its height is almost 35 metres. It is interesting that the project of the dam was not new. At the beginning of the 20th century the project to build a dam in the narrow valley of the Moravice River was made by the important businessman Karl Weisshuhn. The project was too daring for the period, though. The current dam was built many years later by Jan Cermak. In the former house of the businessman Weisshuhn Jan Cermak established a small museum of Joy Adams, who was Weisshuhn’s granddaughter. There used to be an exposition about the construction of the dam and about the important people who lived in this region. The house unfortunately burnt down in 1992.
Nature park ‘Moravice’ was established in 1994 and spreads out over the area of 14,215 ha in the valley of the Moravice River. It is the largest and longest valley, which intersects the Nizky Jesenik Mountains. The river stretches from the Kruzberk Dam to the town of Hradec nad Moravici in a 15.5 km long stripe and there are 36 deep-stuck meanders along its watercourse. The river cuts into the bedrock the most in the part between Kruzberk and the village of Domoradovice. In these places it flows as deep as 150 m below the level of the surrounding landscape. The deep-struck valley with steep woody slopes and relatively small valley meadows form not only picturesque landscape, but also an area with varied vegetation cover, which provide convenient conditions for fauna. In nature park ‘Moravice’ there is Vikstejn Castle as well as two beautiful castle parks – Hradec nad Moravici and Radun.
The castle park in Radun was highly regarded and admired at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries when extensive planting of local as well as exotic woody plants, e. g. Red-leaved European beech, were realized. The castle park with the area of nearly 20 ha (28 ha before 1948) is based on the maximum use of natural values of the area and adjacent hilly terrain with prevailing beech vegetation on the slopes with the sun from the east, and spruce vegetation with admixture of Scots Pine on the western-oriented slopes. The concept of the park is formed by openings. Waterbodies and streams are a significant compositional feature of the park. The upper pond stresses the architecture of the castle building reflected on the water surface and the romantic atmosphere of this place is multiplied by some artificially made islands. The castle park stretches across the valley between the Radunka Brook and the opposite slope covered by woods. In spring a rich population of bear’s garlic blooms here. The parks ends near the dyke of Kamenik Pond, which is important – together with the pools – as the place for common toads’ reproduction.
The castle park, which is inseparable part of the castle complex, was established probably in the first half of the 19th century in the period of Earls of Falkenhain. In the period of the last owners – the Stolbergs -, especially Earl Bedrich, the main focus was given to park extension and rare foreign species of woody plants were planted. In the park a visitor can find places shadowed by high trees as well as open spaces where solitaire woody plants come to the fore. Among them there is the prickly castor oil tree (Kalopanax septemlobus), which you can rarely see in the parks. It can be found quite easily. It grows on the clearing between the castle and the garden house. The most reliable feature is Common Ivy, which fits closely to its trunk. An orangery, romantic garden house and irregular swimming pool are parts of the park. Having walked through this nature landscape park with rich grown vegetation, visitors can leave the park through the gate, which opens a path to the near forest.
It does not matter where you start going through the park as the essential landmark – a castle – is missing here. It used to be there, but it was damaged in the war battles in 1945 and then it was pulled down. The only object, which reminds us of the history of this place, is a massive stone vase in the middle of the meadows with solitaire trees, out of which the Red-leaved European beech is the most conspicuous. The castle park is beautiful and valuable, though, mainly thanks to very rugged terrain, which imparts it with unique atmosphere. Artificially planted park groups alternate with original forest vegetation and spacious meadows; mainly if you go down from the topmost place, where the building of the castle used to stand, to the valley to a tumbledown – though historically valuabel – stone bridge. Suddenly you find yourself among the original forest vegetation – in the beech forest. The castle park was revitalized in the years of 2002 and 2003.
Probably there is not anybody who would not know the birch. This tree is generally well-known for its white bark and this is the feature which is considerably different with the Dark-bark birch, which grows in the region of Opava not only near Radun ponds, but also in the protected nature preserves in Hnevosice grove and in Uvalno meadows. There are 21 trees of the Dark-bark birch in Radun between the first and second pond out of the four (from Opava direction). You can find a sign ‘Memorable tree’ in this place. You will remember the highest Dark-bark birch, near which you are standing now, for its colour and structure of the bark. Now you can go and look for the rest of the trees.
The oak is believed to be 500 years old. The trunk girth is 639 cm. If you want to touch the tree and you are worried to go across the brook using smooth stones of greywacke, you should use a small bridge near the signpost. You have to cross a field, though, to get to the hollow tree. The English oak is original in this area; it has home rights, but it can be hardly defended from the artificially planted red oak. The number of its seedlings gives evidence of immense vitality of this North-American species. The valley of the Radunka Brook is a popular place for walks. Near the village school you can find some more memorable oaks. In the oak alley there are 4 protected trees, the biggest of which has girth of 570 cm and is about 300 years old.
The memorable tree called ‘Dub za Skalkou’ (Oak behind the rock) is a very interesting habitus, which gives evidence of its age. You can use it to demonstrate the third and final phase of the tree life, although in its case it has come untimely. It was established as memorable in 1986 and it is believed to be 250 years old. The trunk girth is 480 cm. Many other oaks of the same age look healthier and more vital. The tree is now in the ‘degradation’ phase, which will be followed by decay and rotting of the wood matter, which will be done by wood-decaying fungus.
The memorable tree in Destne was established in 1972. It is 270 years old and the trunk girth is 480 cm. You can recognize it well not only by its huge crown, but also by the fact it is protected by a fence where you can see a sign saying ‘Memorable tree’. The oak is now in the ‘balanced’ phase, which can take many decades if the fact that it was once struck by the lightning will not prove to be negative for the life of the tree. Therefore, it has good prospects and it could still serve as a significant landmark.
The memorable Harvest Gold linden reminds us of Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763). One legend tells that a gold treasure, which was left here by Prussian soldiers, who were on the run from the Austrian army led by legendary General Laudon, was buried under the linden tree. This linden tree grows on Cerveny kopec (Red Hill) below the volcanic Cervena hora (Red Mountain), which is the highest mountain in the region of Opava. In the surroundings of the linden tree there are many basalt boulders and remains of bubble lava. It was established as a memorable tree in 1998. Its girth is 360 cm. It is estimated to be 210 years old and it is probably an offshoot of the linden tree, under which the gold treasure was buried. The Gold linen won a national competition and was pronounced the most beautiful tree of 2011. Nearby there is Pathway of Czech-German Understanding, which should be promise of good current and future relationships between the Germans and Czechs.
In Guntramovice there are two oaks, which were put in the list of memorable trees in 1972. The age of the first one is estimated to be 420 years, the other one 380 years. The Guntramovice oak no. 1 is in the slope near the village. The Guntramovice oak no. 2 has a regular beautiful crown and is on the plain near the first one. Both of them stand near the field path leading to the village. According to some sources, Austrian army led by General Laudon stopped by these oaks in 1758 as the leaders had to consult how to continue the battle against the troops of Prussian army. Therefore, the trees are called Laudon’s oaks.
Here on the field path from Brezova, before you turn to Verkovice and Jelenice, an English oak grows. According to scientists, it is 220 years old. It was established in 1986. It is an important, conspicuous woody plant with a landscape-forming factor. On the trunk there is a picture of Virgin Mary. There is a good view of the tower of St. Nicholas’s Church in the village of Brezova where you can find another memorable tree – Large-leaved linden.
Vrsek nad Hajem (hill above Haj), designated in maps as spot height 317 and called since time out of mind “Little Hill” or “Steep Hill”, served as a watch hill in the ancient past. In modern times, it was important especially as a place of mass meetings of Silesian people in times of the Silesian revival. The first mass meeting took place on 12th September 1869. About 15 thousand Silesians met here who advocated state union with Moravia and who presented their requirement for Czech education. During the following hundred years, the people’s meetings took place several times. A granite memorial of the Silesian resistance was unveiled on the place of meetings in September 1929. In December 1938, it was destroyed by the Fascists. A new memorial was unveiled in September 1969 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the first mass meeting. The last mass meeting took place in 1990 on the instigation of the renewed Matice Slezska in order to demonstrate the interest of Silesians in co-building of a democratic state.
The nature trail through paths of Haj is a 9 km long trail of medium difficulty with six stops on important places of the village and its near surroundings. It begins and ends at the railway station Haj ve Slezsku and it was built in 1998 by the scouting unit of Haj. The trail passes by the statue of the writer Vladislav Vancura and heads for the military fortress Padarov that is a part of a larger fortification built before the World War II in order to protect the republic. It passes also through the memorable place of Silesians Ostra hurka where took place mass meetings of historical significance. Then it passes through Certuv mlyn valley and Teskovice hill down to the Haj’s part Chabicov back to the railway station.
The Memorial of Silesian Scounting is situated on the Těškovice hill at 363 m a.s.l. The scouting organisation in Haj ve Slezsku was founded in 1930 and it was promoted by Frantisek Brodak - Nik. A cairn of stones was built in reaction to interdiction of the scout movement and dissolution of scouting units in 1970. Inside the memorial, whose construction was started by older scouts in 1971, there is enshrined the foundation charter of the Haj scouting organisation. Even though the times were not favourable to this movement, the memorial was never damaged during the time of totalitarian system. From 1989, young scouts may again meet here to commemorate more or less memorable events of the scout movement and to swear an oath. In 1998, a plate devoted to the Haj scout founder, Frantisek Brodak, was inserted in the memorial. Today, the memorial is covered with epitaph plates of deceased scouts who played an important role in expansion and development of scouting in the Opava region.
The family of Seidler always belonged to notable Guntramovice families. In 1585, Vaclav Seidler took the office of village mayor which was then inherited from father to son, until the first half of the 19th century. Eduard Seidler was born in 1859. After studies, he voluntarily entered the service at naval artillery. In May 1888, he began military service in Pula, which was an important harbour and base of the k.u.k. navy at that time. He also lectured on artillery theory on the Navy Academy in Rijeka and worked at Ministry of War in the section of naval artillery in Vienna. During the World War I until the break-up of the monarchy, he worked at the Maritime Headquarters in Pula. From 1917, he was a general of naval artillery. Immediately after the birth of the Czechoslovak Republic, he offered his services to the new state and was admitted among veterans of the Czechoslovak army. Therefore, the landlocked country in the middle of Europe had a general of naval artillery. Eduard Seidler died in 1936 and is buried in the Guntramovice cemetery.
Anna Marie Thomagnini, the mother of Hradec manor owner, is considered to be the initiator and founder of the Hradec Calvary. On her orders 14 massive columns with paintings depicting scenes of Christ’s martyrdom were built in 1750. In the second half of the 19th century Hradec citizens planned to built Exaltation of the Holy Cross Church or Chapel on the top of the Hradec Calvary, but due to lack of finance the idea was dropped and in 1856 the collected sum was used to build current wall little chapels with paintings depicting Christ’s martyrdom. The scenes depicted on the tin plates were replaced with unique ceramic reliefs in 1889. At the beginning of the 21st century the reliefs were professionally restored and replaced with copies made from artificial stone. Public pilgrimage to Calvary is organized annually in September, in the period around the feast of Exaltation of the Holy Cross.
The Paper-factory Drive in the steep slopes of the valley of the meandering Moravice River is a living evidence of its creator Carl Weisshuhn‘s brilliance. This successful businessman and visionary of Prussian origin himself together with his sons measured the drive and then in 1891 realized this unique construction with the help of Italian workers from the company Migliarini, which was based in Opava. The drive was able to supply the factory with wood along the Moravice River from the distance of 60 km, which brought substantial cost-saving in the comparison with other factories. The drive is 3600 m long and on its course there are 4 handmade tunnels and 2 aqueducts. The entrance tunnel is 45 metres long. The drive is still functional, well-maintained, and although since 1966 it has not been used for wood, it still supplies the Paper factory with necessary water and it makes substantial amount of electricity as well.
This place is connected to numerous legends referring back to the times of Thirty Years’ Wars (1618 – 1648). One of them tells that in those insecure times Hradec priest Frantisek Svetlik buried gold church relics of the Hradec church, so that they are protected against stealing by the foreign armies of Swedes and Danes. When the danger disappeared and the noise of weapons in Europe was replaced with peace, the relics were dug up and returned without damage to St. Peter and Paul’s Church. In the place where the relics were hidden, a spring, which had been unknown and very strong, burst out of the rock. The place has been called ‘Svata studna’ (Saint Well) since then. Thanks to the local part of Matice slezska the well and its surroundings were restored in 2011.
In the period of the 11th and 12th century the most developed Silesian silver mine was in operation here. The depth of its shafts reached 30 to 50 metres. The currently abandoned mine consisted of five vertical early-medieval mine pits (their wide funnel-shaped mouths are well visible on the ground even nowadays). There is also a unique hand dug late-medieval 30-metre-long gallery, which was supposed to drain the old mine pits in the 16th century. The drainage gallery is the work of Supreme Mining Hetman of the Czech Kingdom Krystof of Gerndorf and was built in 1529, when there were plans to resume silver mining. Due to ground water seeping through to the gallery, it was never completed. In 1772 Czech mining specialist Antonin Lemberger and his workers made some explorations here. Although they found out the explored ore contained silver, mining has never been resumed. In 2008 the old mine ‘Slepetne’ was safely closed.
Hradec nad Moravici is a town with rich history, which started as early as in 965, when the wedding marches of Czech Duchess Doubravka and the first known Polish Prince Mieszko I of the Piast Dynasty met here. In 1060 at latest there used to stand a border fortress of the Premyslids’ state, which survived the war invasion of Boleslaw II the Generous. Up to 1433 the Hradec castle was the seat of Opavian Premyslids and Land authorities. After that year all the authorities were moved to the near town of Opava. In 1481 the area around the castle became the town. Then Viktorin, Duke of Podebrady granted the town ‘Hradec over the Moravice River’ town rights, presented the town by the town symbol and granted the town the right to organize an annual market as thanks to loyal service shown by the town citizens in the wars against Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus. Almost 100 years later the Hradec manor became private and after many local and foreign noble owners changed here, Dukes Lichnovskys became the owners of the Hradec manor in 1778. They stayed here in Hradec for seven generations and they owned the castle itself until 1945. After the serfdom was abolished, the small agricultural town became the place where a paper factory, a power station, and in 1862 ironworks were established. The original factory which manufactured nails later emerged into Brano Ironworks, which is nowadays worldwide known company Brano. Hradec is now a small, but modern and cultural town with 2500 inhabitants. Thanks to its picturesque surroundings and cultural sights concentration in its area, Hradec nad Moravici is one of the most popular tourist centers in Moravia Silesia region.
The Opava River is the main artery of the landscape in northern part of Silesia. The flow starts with three sources in the topmost areas of the Hruby Jesenik Mountains and its overall length is 129 km. The Opava and Moravice Rivers drain a major part of Opava and Hlucin regions. Its common flow is in the eastern edge of Opava city. They both belong to Odra basin, which empties into the Baltic Sea. Between Opava and Hlucin the river creates large meanders and floodplains. Unfortunately, many valuable processes in the river landscape, such as erosion, gravel bars, river pools or bank erosion, are reduced. Thus, to considerable extent the river is regulated and the water regime of the landscape is disturbed.
In the cadastre of Suche Lazce there used to be several ponds and water bodies. They gradually ceased to exist, but – however – new ones started to exist. The largest of them is the water basin ‘Sedlinka’, which is fed by the book of the same name. It was built between 1981 and 1983. It has 8.5 ha and nowadays it is used mainly for relaxation and fishing. As for the nature protection, the most valuable part is spontaneously growing riparian vegetation in the south. The pool and vegetation are a suitable place for the reproduction of amphibians, mainly frogs. They migrate here from the surrounding areas in spring to reproduce themselves in the water. Unfortunately, many of them die under car wheels. This is the reason why barriers are built every March and April to enable their secure transport across the roads.
The system of five ponds of Radun is fed by the Radunka Brook. Nowadays they are typical production ponds with all negative effects for their inner life. As for the nature protection, the most valuable parts of this area are reeds on the pond banks and alder trees in waterlogged parts. The wetlands, which were artificially made between the ponds and the road, are very valuable and important. The artificial pools are asylum for many amphibians, insects and other water invertebrates. In late afternoons you can listen to the concert of frogs, nightingales and warblers. In the water you can watch rare animals such as European Fire-bellied Toad, European Tree Frog or Great Crested Newt. Occassionally you can see a grass snake hunting.
The Radunka Brook is a minor flow with its source in the southern slope of Podvihov Hill. It flows through wooded valley in the north of Radun. In the castle park it feeds Kamenik Pond and Vrchni Pond. Then it leaves the village and later feeds the system of five ponds. After 10.7 km of the overall length it empties into Strouha basin and later to the Moravice River. Its most valuable part is in the romantic wooded area of the Radun valley. The brookbed and bank vegetation are undisturbed and therefore is the typical example of the brook in natural state in the area of the Nizky Jesenik Mountains. Its inner life is abundant. We can watch here many mayflies, plecopteras, gammaruses, and other warblers.
Marianske louky (Marian Meadows) lie on the left bank of the Moravice River. Its boundary on the other side is created by five-kilometre-long water drive, which is divided into two distributaries after five hundred metres. One distributary feeds a still functional sawmill. The other leads to a small waterpower station. It was built by Duke Lichnovsky in 1921 and is still functional. The meadows are mainly foxtail and partly soaked. In summer we can watch many rare meadow plants here. There is an educational trail, which gives the visitors in five stops detailed information about the history, geology, fauna, flora and technical monuments. The trail starts near the Belaria Hotel and is nearly two kilometres long.
Northwards of the village Vetrkovice there is a forest called Dubina. There are several sources of the Husi Brook, which flows southwards of the forest in the direction to the village. On the edge of the forest and meadow the book makes a wetland and soaked meadow with many black alders. In one of the pools a rare monocotyledon plant – calla – grows. Calla was artificially transferred here by environmentalists from another location, which was in danger of perishing. The plant usually blooms from May to July. It is characterized by conspicuous white flower on ears. It is a rare place where these protected plants appear.
The Jordan Brook has its incospicuous source on the edge of ‘Selsky les’ (forest) between the villages of Nove Lublice and Moravice. It empties into the Destna Brook very close before the pond in Mladecko. It is a very incospicuous and minor course, which flows through meadows and in some places it has developed bank vegetation. In this place there is a spring of carbon mineral water. It is an artificially made drill well with a hand pump. Thanks to contact with rocks, the ground water is enriched with minerals and is pumped from the depths to the ground. The local mineral water is even richer with mineral substances than the famous springs in the spa of Janske Koupele. Many people from the surrounding as well as distant villages come to the spring for a sip of the natural mineral water.
The natural preserve of Nove Techanovice was established in 1969 and it has the area of nearly 6 ha. The subject of protection is original mixed forest vegetation with a unique mixture of thermophilic and mountain plants. The area stretches on a steep left slope of the Moravice River. It is a unique remainder of natural vegetation of the trees such as European beech, English oak, European hornbeam, and silver fir, on the rocky slopes. In the past many of these trees appeared here. Among the main woody plants here there is also small-leaved linden, sycamore maple as well as Norway maple, Norway spruce, Scots pine and European rowan. After bark beetle infestation in 1995 major part of the infested spruce vegetation was cut down. In the surroundings there are many mines, which were used for mining slate.
The natural preserve Valach was established in 1969. It has an area of 16 ha. The area lies on the right bank of the Moravice River in so called ‘Vitkovska vrchovina’ (Vitkov Highlands). The subject of protection is mixed beech and hornbeam vegetation characteristic for basins of brooks and rivers. The terrain is covered with slope soils and brashes. The bedrock consists of culmian flysch rocks, which appear on the ground in some places. In these places there are mainly greywacke and conglomerate. The largest area of the preserve is covered with so called high-forest beech trees without a shrub layer. Apart from European Beech, there is also European hornbeam, small-leaved linden, sycamore maple and silver fir. As for the geobotanics, the area belongs to slope flowery beech and hornbeam vegetation. Historical documents assume that the area had not been affected by forest industry until the beginning of the 18th century. Overgrown trees were cut down only after wood transport on the Moravice River was established at the end of the 19th century. This is the reason why the area is so valuable.
As for the nature protection, the valley meadow of the Horina Brook is valuable. The meadow has natural bottomland vegetation and the stand of crocus heuffelianus. It is the oldest natural preserve in the region of Opava, which was established in 1948 with the area of 22.5 ha. The Horina Stream goes deep here and makes meandres where river sediments are deposited. The vegetation consists of natural ash/willow alder woodlands. Although crocus can be found scattered in the undergrowth of ash alder groves, its richest population is on northern slope of the right stream bank on soaked meadows. Optimum hydrologic conditions and regular scything help preserve this area. In spring the meadows are constantly supplied with water penetrating from the upper fields. In summer, however, the inflow is weak, which contributes to a good ripening of tubers. The richest blooming of the crocus can be seen in late March.
The preserve lies on the area of 29 ha and was established in 1969. The subject of protection is natural fir/beech vegetation, which is valuable from the forestry as well as botany point of view. The northern and eastern boundary of the preserve, which is about 1.5 km far from the village of Skripov, is made by the Bilovka Brook and its left inflow. In the bedrock the greywacke prevails. Thanks to the history of forestry, we know that the forest on the area of the preserve was formed through natural regeneration and the fact that tree species of local origin were planted. The protected area, where the silver fir, European larch, Norway spruce, European hornbeam, Small-leaved linden, and prevailing European beech grow, belongs to forest preserves of foothills of the Jeseniky Mountains. The forest vegetation is between 90 and 110 years old. Current forest management focuses on gradual renewal of the original beech and fir.
Wetlands are irreplaceable in the landscape. By soil amelioration, watercourse straightening and bank vegetation destruction we have deprived ourselves of rare biotopes of many interesting plant and animal species, which are often already in immediate danger. The motivation for protection of the area with the meandring Heraltice Brook is to save soaked and flooded meadows and wetlands. The area of 14 ha was established as natural heritage in 1991. The conditions in the preserve are suitable for amphibian reproduction in small pools where the species such as the great crested newt, smooth newt as well as the European tree frog live. The viviparous lizard is the inhabitant of wet meadows with thick vegetation. The grass snake hunts tadpoles in the pools. Calm space in the reeds is used by several couples of Western March Harriers, which are in the Red List of Threatened Species, for nesting.
Here below the hill called Hurka (466.6 m.a.s.l.) there is phytosociologically interesting mixed vegetation with prevalance of conifers. The preserve was established in 1995 in the area of 16 ha with the goal to protect unique vegetation of the original Heraltice pine. Although it is the scots pine, it shows attributes of an ecotype. It is characterized by a high straight trunk, which could be used for making long boards suitable for ship construction. Therefore it was highly regarded and exported to the shipyards in Terst and Hamburg. The vegetation consists of the original European larch (subsp. polonica), English oak, European hornbeam, and Norway spruce. Under thin shrub vegetation, which is formed mainly by pruned small-leaved linden, there is the Calamagrostis Arundinacea, wood-small reed, fescue and Millium Effusum growing.
This area is enlisted in the nature protection system of Natura 2000 as Special Area of Conservation (SAC). It is a complex of soaked foxtail meadows between the villages of Jakartovice and Mladecko in the meadow of the Hvozdnice River, which meanders in the valley where the meadow is formed by ash and alder trees. In this soaked biotope there is a rare butterfly Dusky Large Blue, whose caterpillars feed on the leaves of the herb called Great Burnet and their further development is connected with Tetramorium caespitum because they hibernate in their anthills.
The building of an old sugar refinery in Skrochovice was in 1939 rebuilt into a small concentration camp for political prisoners of Polish nationality, mainly from the regions of Tesin and Katowitze. It was the first Nazi concentration camp in Silesia and the whole Czech Republic. Heinrich Jöckl, notorious for cruel treatment, became the commander of the camp. Later he was a commander of Terezin camp. The camp was closed down in January 1940. Until then there had been about 700 political prisoners. There is a small monument as a memorial to the Polish prisoners and these tragic events. The building is in commercial use now
Slate Path is a widened natural exposition of the public Slate Museum in Budisov nad Budisovkou. The entrance to the Educational Path is marked from the railway station. The whole length of the path is 33 km, but you can shorten it using several marked connectors. In the terrain there are information boards, which introduce you to the history of slate mining and specific natural conditions as well as the history of the villages the path goes through. You discover several vanished mines, slate mounds and lakes in the swamped mine pits. The path is marked with painted symbols and tourist direction signs.
To the east of the village you can see a terrain wave included between the Velka Brook and a local pond. It is an archeological site, Slavic skeleton cairn of the 9th century, which is unique in Opava Silesia. The cairn is an artificially made bulwark from stones or soil, which is usually over one or more graves. This way of burying was used in many cultures all over the world from prehistoric times. The remains might be in the form of a skeleton or ash placed in a protected box or they might be laid unprotected. Important persons might have had a funeral chamber built.
The foundations of the castle park in Hradec nad Moravici were laid in the second half of the 18th century, when Jan Karel Bohumil Lichnovsky bought Hradec manor with the castle and famous hunting games from Baron of Neffzern. He soon initiated the establishment of a game preservation, which became the foundation for later creation of natural landscape park of English style. The fist stage of the park creation started at the beginning of the 19th century, when the remains of the medieval and baroque fortification features, situated near the White Castle, were taken away, and behind the southern wing of the castle the castle orangery was made. The second stage took place in the 1840’s and was significantly influenced by the direct relationship of Felix Lichnovsky and Duke Hermann Pückler von Muskau, the park architect of European significance. In the past few years the castle park in Hradec nad Moravici has been going through substantial revitalization changes, which should restore the original compositions and minor already vanished buildings of the unique landscape park.
In 1862 in the area where there used to be mills Brano Ironworks was established. In those times they manufactured minor iron products, mainly nails and studs. Carl Vaclav Dorasil and his partners are stated as the founders. From 1939 – 1945 the production plan was adapted to the needs of German army. The ironworks are better known under the name of BRANO as the manufacturer of an automatic system for closing the door. Nowadays BRANO a.s. (Plc.) is focused on automobile industry, which they supply with door locks, pedal systems, handbrakes, silencers, horns and other components.
The viewing platform on Branecky Hill offers the northbound view of Opava lowland and Poland. On the western horizon you can often see Praded Mountain and the ridges of the Jeseniky Mountains. In the past there used to be a settlement of Urnfield people and in the 18th century there used to be a system of walls from Silesian Wars called ‘sance’. In the hillside there used to be a quarry, which brought a substantial profit to the village. In 1895 the hill face exhausted by mining broke off and an enormous amount of stone with part of the field slid down. In the slide some bronze tools of Urnfield people were found.
The state tobacco factory was established in Budisov nad Budisovkou in 1873. Viennese Government thus complied with Budisov representatives’ request to support trade in the town. The factory buildings were built in 1876 – 1877 and 1904 – 1905. The factory was specialized in handmade production of cigars. 23 million items were made here every year. After the German occupation of the region of Sudety the factory was taken over by a German private businessman. The production of cigars was closed down in 1944 and German Army Wehrmacht placed secret weapons construction here. Not long before the end of war all the machinery was moved to Germany. Nowadays the machinery company called Linaset is based here.
The Lobnik Brook springs near the main European water division by Rejchartice in 670m a.s.l. and it has the total length of 16.6 km. Its basin space is about 50 km2. The brook flows through mixed forests and it naturally meanders in grass brook meadow. It empties into the levelling water reservoir of the same name, which is a part of Kruzberk Dam. The soil sprinkled dyke, which is 19.6m high, serves for collecting silt.
Woodboys is an old mine. On the basis of its state and the range of mining activities, it is estimated that the mining started here in the 19th century. Mining was probably finished around 1945. Ramblers named the quarry pit over the Woodboys Mine ‘Devil’s Muzzle’. Descending to the bottom and walking in the chamber is dangerous as the ceiling is unstable. As the evidence of this we can see weathered slate boards that fell off the ceiling and now lie on the side of the chamber. There is a log cabin near the quarry pit. The foundations for the log cabin were the remainders of slate walls of what once might have been a slate mill. The mines are not accessible. The mouth of the gallery is secured with a grille.
The original German name of the place which is ‘Waldfrieden’ tends to be translated as Forest Seclusion. ‘Stare Oldruvky’ Mine is one of a few mines where mining of quality slate resumed, which happened in 1971. Only 10 – 20% of extracted slate, which was gained by blasting in one-kilometre-long tunnel, was milled; the rest was thrown away. About 20 people worked in the mine. Among many places the slate from this mine was used for the restoration of the roof of National Theatre in Prague. Mining was finished here in 2003. Over the mine there are exploratory wells, a surface slate quarry and a romantic puddingstone rockery. A big colony of Greater Mouse-eared bats as well as Geoffroy’s bats regularly hibernate in the abandoned mine. Conservationists keep monitoring them. Mines and their galleries are ideal for hibernating of these animals. They are quiet, dim and have constant temperature even during the winter.
The ruins of a former mill and old mines are situated over the border of military area. Over the interesting right-angled meander of the Odra River – in the place of a former wooden footbridge – there are galleries of the ore mine ‘Wilibald’ where silver-lead ore – esp. galena - was mined. In the slope over the slate mound there is a gallery called V Zatocine (In the Meander), which is about 180 metres long and 8 metres wide. The mine entrance is weathered and life-threatening. From the slate roll-away there is a beautiful view of the surroundings as well as the Odra River, which springs below a nearby hill called Ruzovy vrch (Pink Hill).
In the place called Na Skalce (On the Little Rock) there is a former deep-seated deposit of choppable clay slate. These were two vertical mine pits about 100 metres deep. Between the pits, which were 300 metres far from each other, there probably was a slate mill. The whole mine complex is nowadays filled with water and one of the pits serves as a source of drinking water. In the area there are still ruins of mining buildings and supporting walls, which protected the transportation roads against being buried by slag.
In this area – in the place of the vanished village called Nove Oldruvky – there are several mines, which are remainders of roof slate mining. Two of these mines are underground and the rest are surface mines. A well-preserved stylish administrative building of the mining company reminds us of former mining activities here. A vast slate mound towers over the road. ‘Rodrigues Grave’ is the name of a moderate-sized surface quarry with an about-ten-metre-deep mineshaft. The whole underground of the shaft is filled with water. Modra stola (Blue Gallery) – also called Mlynska (Mill) – got its name from the appearance of blue-coloured minerals. The entrance to the gallery is forbidden and it is secured with a grille. The mine is an important nesting site of the endangered Barbastelle (bat). They start appearing in the mine at the end of October and leave it in mid-April. It was observed that the quantity of bats fluctuates with the rising number of visitors, especially ramblers and rubberneckers, in the mine. We kindly ask you not to enter the mine and thus disturb the hibernating colonies of bats.
‘Nad Cermenskym mlynem’ (Upon Cermna Mill) is a complex of several quarries. A huge mound gives evidence how large they were. The bottom of the mound is secured with a stone wall made of scrap slate, which goes along the road. The entrance to the underground is possible through a spacious chamber. There blocks of slate falling down the ceiling, so walking in this place is dangerous. The commemorative plaque next to the entrance reminds us of a tragic death of a diver who died when he was exploring the gallery. To the south of the mound there is an already buried shaft; you can observe cuts of mining device timbering on the rock wall. On the mound there is a cabin colony called ‘Na Sifraku’ with a well-preserved gallery and mine shaft of the vastest Cermna deep-seat mine, which is filled with water nowadays. Before you turn to the cabin colony, there are ruins of a mine house.
In this area there are several mine galleries, which go radially into the surrounding slopes. The exploration gallery called ‘Zluty kvet’ (Yellow Flower) is 35 metres long. A wooden gallery got its name from original wooden rails which were found here. ‘Lelkuv lom’ (Lelek Quarry) creates a cut to the hillside and the last one is a mined-through gallery called ‘Zlute pisky’ (Yellow Sands). Most of the underground is filled with water nowadays. In the place of a no-name gallery there is a quarry lake now. On the slate mound there are remainders of mine buildings.
In the area of Cerny dul (Black Mine) there are several old surface mines and pits, which are filled with water now. The main mine is a three-floor deep-seat complex. The entrance to the mine is from a slanted pit where you can observe tiny efflorescence of sulfur, mainly of gypsum. The entrance passes to a vertical shaft. You can find the place by a mound of scrap slate, portal and a streamlet flowing from underground. Slate mining was finished here during the World War I. As soon as mining was finished, the mine became an asylum for bats. Nowadays it is an important winter site for eight kinds of bats, among which the Barbastelle (bat) is the most numerous. This kind forms a colony of up to a thousand bats here. This is the reason why ‘Cerny dul’ (Black Mine) became a protected natural creation and one of the most important winter sites of this animal.
In the place of the current hamlet Pilny Mlyn, Karel Bitovsky of Bitov, an owner of Litultovice and Lhotka then, built a water mill with a pond and its drive in 1588 – 1601. Wenceslaus Pilny Mlynarz (Miller in English) became the first owner of the mill – this was probably the reason for the name of the hamlet which is Pilny Mlyn (mill in English). The mill was burnt down during Thirty Years’ War and was restored with the help of the nobility. The mill was working until 1874. After that the new owner – Baron Rollsberg – closed it down and established a sawmill on its drive. In 1892 the first train went through Pilny Mlyn. Currently, there are 6 houses in the hamlet.
The train stop on the track from Opava to Jakartovice, which formerly went through Svobodne Hermanice to Horni Benesov, is called Mladecko. According to the cadastral map, it belongs to a hamlet called Luhy, which belongs under the townlet of Litultovice. The hamlet of Luhy lies on the Hvozdnice River and Destna Stream. In the past there used to be a steam mill, which was built in 1872. It burnt out in 1959. The stone was mined in two quarries, which were later connected into one. The quarry is still in operation. There are currently 18 houses in Luhy.
Choltice was established in 1846 by Antonin Sedlnicky of Choltice, who used to own Jezdkovice manor then. The hamlet was established on the hill called Brezi to breed heifers. In 1878 a miller Konrad Romfeld transported a water mill of German type from Sadek to Choltice. The mill was in full operation until 1954. Nowadays Konrad’s great-grandson Radomir Romfeld maintains the mill and a small mill exposition. Choltice has belonged to Litultovice since 1949. There are currently 21 houses in the hamlet.
In this area there used to be an old Slavic fortified settlement, which was probably built by the serfs of Zivotice founder Knight Zibota at the beginning of the 13th century. Such fortresses were built by the Slavs in hardly accessible swampy places and this fortified settlement is a good example of this fact. The fortress was badly damaged by the Tatars in 1241 and although there were some attempts to reconstruct it, it gradually perished. The fortress used to have a square floor. It was also surrounded by a broad moat and huge bulwark. You can still see the ruins of the moat and bulwark in the terrain. Around 1850 the house next to the fortress was occupied by a teacher called Jan Polak, whose name appears in the books which listed immovable serfs’ properties (in Czech called Gruntovni) and other books too. The teacher’s name became the root for the current name ‘Polakovo kolo’(Polak’s Wheel). The area of the water fortress lies on a private land now and, thus, it is not accessible.
The brick building of the former parish was built in 1800 and it could be said that it has not changed for over 200 years. Thanks to activities of local people, this building, which is protected as cultural heritage of the Czech Republic, became the Museum of Country Life in 2011. The exhibition was created from the collection of the objects which were donated by local people and which remind us of the way how ordinary people in the country lived and worked. There are objects of everyday use as well as unusual tools and equipment, e. g. a lever and crank washing machine or a unique stamping die of the Razumovsky dynasty. One room is dedicated to Count Camillo Razumovsky; you can see a priest’s room or the original kitchen, and in the corridor there is a black kitchen with a cauldron and a big stirring spoon, which was used for making plum butter. If you want to visit the Museum of Country Life, make an appointment in the local municipality office.
In Mokrinky there was a deposit of high quality slate, which was first mined by Josef Nittman in the mid-19th century. Mining continued even after Felix, Count Arco, sold the mines to a major businessman and constructor Carl Weisshuhn. In Mokrinky there were two shafts – Carl, which went as deep as to 82 m, and Friderike with the depth of about 60 m. In 1908 the deposit of the shaft Carl was already empty and Friderike shaft was bought by Count Camillo Razumovsky. The mine was seized from the Razumovskys in 1920s due to land reform. It was bought by the man called Jan Rihak, who was then the only Czech specialist in slate mining. He was mining here successfully until the beginning of the World War II, when he lost the mine. Mining in Friderike shaft ceased during the World War II. The entrances to both of the shafts are nowadays covered with a thick concrete board.
The hamlet of Hory (Mountains in Czech) was first mentioned in 1325 and according to the oldest records there used to be a little castle or a fortress. Hory was once administratively connected with the village of Dolni Zivotice. Long distance between the villages resulted in the necessity to build a chapel, school and cemetery in Hory. The chapel was built in 1883 in the place of the belfry of 1811 and in 1924 a finished in 1938 but its completion was interrupted cemetery was established. A bigger chapel was by the war. Thanks to financial donations the chapel was completed in 1945. The altar and the statue of Our Lady of Hostyn are said to have been donated by Priest Alois Vranik of Moravice as thanks for his lucky return from a concentration camp.
The climbing wall Hradisko is divided into three parts. The massif on the left side is marked as Zabi kun (Frog horse), in the middle there is the Main Massif with a cave and rock wall Rozlamana (Broken to Pieces) on the right side. The climbing routes are firmly guarded with pitons, cams and bolts. The difficulty of the climbing routes is II – VI. The rock cave was dug by an owner of a factory Carl Weisshuhn, whose family homestead called Na Stoupach lies nowadays on the bottom of Kruzberk dam. The cave was supposed to serve as a family tomb. On the top of the training climbing wall Zabi kun (Frog horse) there is a trigonometric point with a viewing platform. Going through the forest above the rock, you can reach the point with a view of the dam, the Moravice River or the cottage settlement with the guest house Velke Sedlo.